motivation

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Related to Intrinsic motivation: Intrinsic value, Extrinsic motivation

motivation

the force or process which impels people to behave in the way that they do. In a work setting, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. In OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY two basic conceptions of motivation can be discerned: ‘needs’ theory and ‘expectancy’ theory Possibly the best known of the former is the ‘hierarchy of needs’ identified by Abraham Maslow (1908-70). He argued that individuals have intrinsic needs which they are impelled to seek to satisfy. These needs, which are ordered in a hierarchy are physical needs (food, warmth, shelter), security needs (safety, home), ego needs (esteem, status) and self-actualization needs (the realization of individual potential). Initially, the lower order needs such as safety determine behaviour but once these are satisfied higher order needs come to dominate. Maslow's theory has been widely criticized, however, for assuming that such needs are universal and that they are always ordered in this particular hierarchy.

Other needs theories include Herzberg's ‘Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. He argued that people are motivated by two kinds of need: hygiene factors (those basic needs such as shelter which, if not satisfied, lead to unhappiness but whose satisfaction does not in itself lead to happiness); and motivators (those higher order needs which when satisfied lead to contentment). The importance of this theory in a work setting is its insistence that managers have to ensure that both hygiene factors (i.e. pay, working conditions) and motivation (i.e. the need for personal fulfilment) are satisfied for a workforce to be content and highly motivated.

A further ‘needs’ theory is the ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of Clayton Alderfer (1940 -). Like Maslow he suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs but that the less a high level need is satisfied the more important a lower level need becomes. Hence demands for more pay in fact really reflect a desire for work to be made more satisfying.

The main alternative approach to ‘needs’ theories is the ‘expectancy’ approach associated with Victor Vroom (1932 -). This suggests that individuals are motivated to act in certain ways not by some basic inner need but by the strength of the expectation that the action will achieve a result seen by them as desirable. The desire for a particular outcome is known as the ‘valence’. This theory is essentially a ‘process’ theory: it emphasizes the process of motivation rather than the nature or content of particular motivators. The strength of people's motivation will be determined by weighing up how much they want something and how far they believe a certain action will contribute to achieving it.

References in periodicals archive ?
On the contrary, intrinsic motivation arises out of the internal feelings of the employees, thus denoting the influential position of personal satisfaction in driving goal directed behavior of personnel (Ryan and Deci, 2000).
Studies have shown that individuals who experience high levels of intrinsic motivation exhibit high levels of interest, excitement, passion, and confidence that often result in increased job performance, persistence, and greater creativity (Ryan & Deci, 2000).
The items, which assess why the individual is performing a particular activity or task, are equally distributed among the four subscales that represent the dimensions defined by SDT: Intrinsic Motivation (e.
The development and functioning of intrinsic motivation are specified using the concept of basic psychological needs, namely competence, autonomy and social relatedness.
The level of intrinsic motivation indicates that there is internal motivation which drives the implementation of innovation by lecturers.
Motivational orientation is the inner force that enthuses an individual to remain engaged to a task and these orientations consist of various aspects like, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, self -efficacy, self-determination, personal relevance, and assessment anxiety (Stewart, Bachman, & Johnson, 2010; Chow & Yong, 2013)
Thus the focus of the study was on the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation of the students and its effects on the academic performance of the students.
In cognitive evaluation theory, it is also suggested that either immediate contextual supports for autonomy and competence, or abiding inner resources are required for intrinsic motivation to be evident (Ryan & Deci, 2000).
It should be noted however that mastery orientation and intrinsic motivation are not synonymous, just as performance orientation and extrinsic motivation are not.
Intrinsic motivation is related to enhanced performance.
Following strategic actions can be included in a faculty development program to persuade the faculty members to take personal responsibility for their learning focusing on their intrinsic motivation.
However, no previous study has investigated the relationship between students' perception of autonomy support in PE and their exercise intrinsic motivation outside of the PE context via psychological needs satisfaction in PE.