motivation

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Related to Intrinsic motivation: Intrinsic value, Extrinsic motivation

motivation

the force or process which impels people to behave in the way that they do. In a work setting, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. In OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY two basic conceptions of motivation can be discerned: ‘needs’ theory and ‘expectancy’ theory Possibly the best known of the former is the ‘hierarchy of needs’ identified by Abraham Maslow (1908-70). He argued that individuals have intrinsic needs which they are impelled to seek to satisfy. These needs, which are ordered in a hierarchy are physical needs (food, warmth, shelter), security needs (safety, home), ego needs (esteem, status) and self-actualization needs (the realization of individual potential). Initially, the lower order needs such as safety determine behaviour but once these are satisfied higher order needs come to dominate. Maslow's theory has been widely criticized, however, for assuming that such needs are universal and that they are always ordered in this particular hierarchy.

Other needs theories include Herzberg's ‘Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. He argued that people are motivated by two kinds of need: hygiene factors (those basic needs such as shelter which, if not satisfied, lead to unhappiness but whose satisfaction does not in itself lead to happiness); and motivators (those higher order needs which when satisfied lead to contentment). The importance of this theory in a work setting is its insistence that managers have to ensure that both hygiene factors (i.e. pay, working conditions) and motivation (i.e. the need for personal fulfilment) are satisfied for a workforce to be content and highly motivated.

A further ‘needs’ theory is the ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of Clayton Alderfer (1940 -). Like Maslow he suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs but that the less a high level need is satisfied the more important a lower level need becomes. Hence demands for more pay in fact really reflect a desire for work to be made more satisfying.

The main alternative approach to ‘needs’ theories is the ‘expectancy’ approach associated with Victor Vroom (1932 -). This suggests that individuals are motivated to act in certain ways not by some basic inner need but by the strength of the expectation that the action will achieve a result seen by them as desirable. The desire for a particular outcome is known as the ‘valence’. This theory is essentially a ‘process’ theory: it emphasizes the process of motivation rather than the nature or content of particular motivators. The strength of people's motivation will be determined by weighing up how much they want something and how far they believe a certain action will contribute to achieving it.

References in periodicals archive ?
These authors note that individuals may be motivated by internal interest or "intrinsic motivation" when individuals desire to perform a task effectively purely for the enjoyment of completing it (Deci, 1971).
The objective of this paper is to emphasize the direct consequence of intrinsic motivation on performance and the link between performance appraisal satisfaction and individuals' psychological reactions.
Following strategic actions can be included in a faculty development program to persuade the faculty members to take personal responsibility for their learning focusing on their intrinsic motivation. Interviewing the faculty taking time to explain the importance of their learning activity i.e.
The AMS is a 28-item scale that measures intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation.
However, intrinsic motivation was positively correlated with mental effort, and amotivation was positively correlated with frustration (r=0.343; r=0.339).
(3) How does negative mood affect cognitive load, germane load, intrinsic motivation, and learning performance in multimedia learning environments?
Hypothesis 4: Intrinsic motivation will moderate the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and moral self-image, such that greater intrinsic motivation will strengthen the relationship.
With respect to goal orientation, climbers scored higher on task orientation, which has been associated with intrinsic motivation.
e headmistress suggested that parents should trust their own instincts, teachers and their child's school and "nd the things that will form good intrinsic motivation, which includes a child knowing why they're doing it, having choice, having some autonomy and choosing mastery over goal".
This lack of intrinsic motivation in junior college and lower secondary students in the respective studies by Lim (2010) and Fan et al.
The researchers Helm Steve and Griego (2009), state that motivation suppositions are based on intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation which contributes to the employees' interest in entrepreneurship.
This paper specifically examines whether leader-member exchange, intrinsic motivation, and psychological empowerment are linked to employees' innovative work behavior.