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Average heights of intervertebral disks per lumbar levels, obtained by direct measurement Anterior Posterior Average height height L1-L2 10.71 5.1 7.91 L2-L3 13.16 6.14 9.65 L3-L4 15.55 7.05 11.30 L4-L5 17.81 7.68 12.75 L5-S1 16.92 7.14 12.03 Table II.
Thus, we started from marking the extreme contact points between the body and the disk, represented by the most protruding vertebral points in the direction of the intervertebral disk, a, b, c, d, as well as the half distances a-b and c-d, respectively, which distances represent the anterior-posterior maximum diameters of adjacent vertebrae.
Adams MA, Freeman BJC, Morrison HP, Dolan P, 2000, Mechanical initiation of intervertebral disk degeneration, Spine 25, 431-437;
[sup][6] Smoking may affect the metabolism of the intervertebral disk and accelerate disk degeneration, [sup][31] and act via the neuroendocrine system to alter pain perception, presumably increasing the back pain.
Acute prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disk. An epidemiologic study with special reference to driving automobiles and cigarette smoking.
The surgeries on the spinal duct root decompressions by removal of the fragments of intervertebral disk were widely applied in 40-50-s of the last century.
Inverted fluorescent microscopy of the intervertebral disks revealed cells with a spindle shaped morphology that emitted red fluorescence corresponding to the CM-DIL cytosol stainer (Figure 1A).
The striking histologic similarity of the embryonal notochord, notochordal vestiges of intervertebral disks, and EPs, BNCTs, and chordomas render their various diagnoses difficult, especially on biopsy.
The study included 22 healthy volunteers (mean age, 34 years; weight 67 kg; height 169 cm) with no history of back pain or surgery who underwent measurements of lumbar lordosis angles, intervertebral disk heights, and translation of the nucleus pulposus using a 0.6-tesla whole-body, positional MRI scanner.
Salient autopsy findings noted the deposition of black pigment in skin and multiple organs, including heart, aorta, skin, kidney, trachea/bronchi, and joints including intervertebral disks. A pigmented calculus was found in the penis of the right kidney, measuring 1.5 x 0.9 x 0.9 cm.
Physical exercise has various physiological benefits for the spine and especially for the intervertebral disk. The various postures and activities that the patient is involved in can influence the dynamic as well as the normal pressures over the disk.