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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

References in periodicals archive ?
of interval training research is in order before we address the broader
I explained how interval training causes physiologic changes slow, steady exercise can't duplicate.
While interval training is one of the most popular workouts today, it can jolt and shock the body too quickly, even for those experienced with fitness," says Rob Murdock, Vice President/General Manager of Nautilus Direct-to-Consumer business.
worst three) and from these groups were randomly assigned to the three training groups: steady-state, very brief, very high intensity interval training (Tabata et al.
10 Minute Solution: High Intensity Interval Training promotes short workout routines that consist of 20 seconds of extreme effort and 10 seconds of rest, repeated in a four-minute cycle.
Earlier interval training studies primarily focused on highly trained males, but researchers say that overlooks the variety of other populations that routinely use interval training.
Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high intensity aerobic interval training on changes in indices of muscle damage in soccer players.
Lastly, a large fraction of Americans are overweight and sedentary and because of new medical science studies he knew that interval training was the best way to burn calories, burn fat, and start living a disease free livelihood.
Researchers from the University of Colorado's Anschultz Medical Campus found that even two and a half minutes of intense effort within a single 25-minute sprint interval training session could burn as many as 200 extra calories in a day.
Run twice per week, one session interval training and one for distance.
Summary: TEHRAN (FNA)- Results of a new study showed that a program which combines interval training and healthy eating practices seems to be perfectly indicated for those suffering from obesity.
Interval training has become the go-to protocol for quick and efficient fat loss.