agricultural producers participated in direct or intermediated markets, a notable trend given that the agricultural sector is increasingly defined by its bimodal structure (Low et al., 2015).
Despite a 5.5% increase in the number of farms utilizing direct-to-consumer marketing outlets between 2007 and 2012 observed in the Census of Agriculture, there was no change in overall sales as intermediated markets became a more significant channel for those marketing local (Low et al., 2015).
Given the slowing growth in direct markets, intermediated markets are receiving more attention, but they may not seem as accessible to small- and mid-sized farms.
Since they also provide evidence that sales through intermediated markets could bolster profitability, it motivates future work to assess whether the policies and programs outlined by Clark and Jablonski supporting food supply chain initiatives could indeed lead to higher economic impacts than those simply targeting direct markets.
Ironically, Bauer and Yamey (1968), who argue that intermediated markets are efficient, implicitly recognise the necessity for a mechanism for disintermediation in emphasising the role of producer cooperatives in enabling sellers (and buyers) to by-pass the middleman.
The central finding of this paper is that intermediated markets exhibit interdependence between supply and demand if sellers and buyers have a direct trade alternative.
`Search and Trading in Intermediated Markets', Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 5, 195-216.
Accordingly, the 2014 Farm Bill continued to support and expand LRFS policy and programming, with a noted increase in funding to support the development and expansion of intermediated markets (Martinez, 2016).
* coordinating support that changed the way that USDA invests its resources, including making it easier for small and beginning producers to access loan programs and to meet regulatory requirements for intermediated markets, as well as support for local food infrastructure investments (including for food hubs and innovative retail).
Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) 2013 data to examine patterns among the roughly one thousand usable responses from participants selling in direct-to-consumer (DTC) and/or intermediated markets. In this paper, DTC sales are sales of products by the farmer to the final consumers such as farmers' market sales, CSAs, or farm stands.
There is also evidence that sales through intermediated markets could bolster profitability.
for local products, while inherently struggling with certain weaknesses, are not going away, especially as consumer demand continues (National Grocers Association (NGA), 2015).