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Both side grafts and leaf-piece grafts with T-budding or veneer grafting (only when indicator plants did not show sufficient sap flow) were used for disease transmission.
The factors included budwood type, type of indicator plants (TIP) and months after inoculation (MAI).
This experimental design assumed that indicator plants in the NN treatments have greater growth rates due to decreased neighbor effects and not to increased soil nutrient availability following the herbicide application (Aarrsen and Epp 1990).
Let us back up a minute and identify "indicator plants." Over the years, it has become common knowledge that certain plants are associated with particular soil conditions.
Hence, the worker did not settle for an indicator plant from among those found abnormal.
The search for a short-lived indicator plant was deemed important because the coconut, being a perennial, was expected to take years before giving a definitive reaction.