at 188 ("Even when the indentureship
system ended .
Thus, for example, in his study of lifelong indentureship
in Shimoga district (Mysore state), Harper observed: `Haviks [the high caste patrons] were concerned to see that members of their group did not undermine the system by offering more than the customary inducements to a servant, and to prevent one employer from hiring another's indentured servant.
She was living quietly as a slave, having allowed a man to whom she was indentured to sell her into slavery - not back into slavery, she had never been a slave, she was born free, but her indentureship
was so long - she was tricked into signing her "X" for ninety-nine years - she became locked in.
It explores the Indian woman's claim to a place as home in the multiracial, multicultural Caribbean vis a vis a tradition of colonial discourse which privileges European possession of the "discovered" lands of the New World while several culturally discrete groups, displaced by colonialism and indentureship
, jostle for ontological space and identity in the colonial social reality.
Like a 'desert flower' of African Diasporic fortitude springing upwards in the coloniser's terra firma, the innovation of the multi-focal IDMP stands fearlessly abreast the varied strategies of survival the colonised ancestors were emboldened to employ in their trans-generational fight against labour exploitation, which has characterised interpersonal relationships from slavery through indentureship
to modern industrial/factory wage earning, both in the Caribbean and in the Global North Atlantic.
Indian Women and Indentureship
in Trinidad and Tobago, 1854-1917" Economic and Political Weekly 20(43): 79-87.
Millette (1994) elucidates that immediately after the end of their indentureship
, the Chinese formed themselves into associations that were initially based on clan, dialect and place of birth in China.
Land settlement schemes, seen by the planters as a replacement became an alternative: as Mangru points out, in an odd reversal after the end of indentureship
in the 1930s, the planters supported return passages and India opposed it.
Unlike his father, Ralph chooses to separate slavery and indentureship
which, furthermore, lies at the root of his desire to escape from Isabella to England.
His numerous references to the commonalizing juggernaut of colonialism and the parallels between slavery and indentureship
were never effective enough to dismantle or undermine the feelings of distinctiveness created by history and socio-cultural institutions.
Look, if a dictator forces people to live in squalor and then capitalizes off of basically brutish indentureship
to sell to countries like the United States the cheapest products possible, then countries that value freedom and that feel people deserve a fair wage for a fair day's work are going to Lose manufacturing jobs--even service and information industry jobs--the ones we think we are hanging onto to console ourselves.
In the earlier episodes of indentureship
, the poor whites were split away from the other laboring classes on the basis of a whiteness that was in the process of being made.