Risking violence against them by their male counterparts, (85) Indo-Caribbean women "continued to challenge normative expectations of Indian female sexuality and simultaneously redefine[d] femininity in the Trinidad-Indian context." (86) These indentured women shook the fabric of patriarchy in such a way that in 1916, a year before the end of indentureship
, a group of indentured laborers filed a formal complaint against the actions of Indian women.
The historian Verene Sheperd points out that during the period of indentureship
, the scarcity of Indian women migrants meant that Indian men had few suitable partners.
In particular, Apess recollects when, as a teenager, he escaped indentureship
and traveled with a confidence man (or boy) named John who, having heard a group of soldiers' "affecting" tale, "concluded to incorporate a part of it with his own" (24).
For the reader, there is no escape from being reminded of Naipaul's origins--in a family that had barely climbed out of indentureship
in a plantation economy in far-off Trinidad.
Third, the world economy has been significantly influenced by racialized labor supply and other practices of labor recruitment, such as, among others, indentureship
in the nineteenth century, importation of Third World domestic labor, and trafficking in mostly Third World sex workers.
Enough women in Third World countries were attracted by the comparatively higher wages in Canada and the promise of citizenship; they came to Canada as domestic workers in the hope that once they had completed their indentureship
, they could enter more lucrative forms of employment (p.
Even in cases where women, men, boys and girls are clearly harmed within the sex industry or are caught in debt-bondage and indentureship
situations, it is the respectful recognition of subjectivity and personal agency that creates continuity in this collection.
Despite its semifeudal nature, indentureship
carried with it aspects of capitalism, including waged labour, rational calculation and individualism.
Thus, for example, in his study of lifelong indentureship
in Shimoga district (Mysore state), Harper observed: `Haviks [the high caste patrons] were concerned to see that members of their group did not undermine the system by offering more than the customary inducements to a servant, and to prevent one employer from hiring another's indentured servant.' this implied that strong pressure was exerted on these patrons `not to be too liberal in giving secondary benefits, so as not to give cause for discontent to the servants of others'.
She was living quietly as a slave, having allowed a man to whom she was indentured to sell her into slavery - not back into slavery, she had never been a slave, she was born free, but her indentureship
was so long - she was tricked into signing her "X" for ninety-nine years - she became locked in.
It explores the Indian woman's claim to a place as home in the multiracial, multicultural Caribbean vis a vis a tradition of colonial discourse which privileges European possession of the "discovered" lands of the New World while several culturally discrete groups, displaced by colonialism and indentureship
, jostle for ontological space and identity in the colonial social reality.
According to Lisa Lowe, there has been a lack of knowledge produced about the ties between "the slave trade and the extermination of native peoples that founded the conditions of possibility for indentureship
; that stretches forward into the ubiquitous migrations of contemporary global capitalism." (23)