returns to scale

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returns to scale

the relationship between OUTPUT of a product and the quantities of FACTOR INPUTS used to produce it in the LONG RUN. Where, for example, doubling the quantity of factor inputs used results in a doubling of output then constant returns to scale’ are experienced. Where ECONOMIES OF SCALE are present, a doubling of factor inputs results in a more than proportionate increase in output. By contrast, where DISECONOMIES OF SCALE are encountered, a doubling of factor inputs results in a less than proportionate increase in output.
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either over-restriction or chaotic expansion), that is, to thereby move the entrepreneurship research field toward the coherence needed, for example, for paradigm development, while still aiding, abetting, and perhaps even accelerating exploration, it might be argued that the logic of increasing returns ought to be employed to provide a fresh framework for understanding, interpreting, and bounding the new world of entrepreneurship research in which we now find ourselves as a scholarly community.
From when and how to report to identifying risks, How To Cheat At It Project Management holds all the answers to decreasing errors and increasing returns.
We expect a free enterprise economy to underinvest in invention and research (as compared with an ideal)," he wrote, "because it is risky, because the product can be appropriated only to a limited extent, and because of increasing returns in use.
Reviewing recent literature in economics and suggesting extensions to the world of politics, the article demonstrates that increasing returns processes are likely to be prevalent, and that good analytical foundations exist for exploring their causes and consequences.
It is also important to note that opportunity funds use leverage as a means increasing returns.
Only recently has the increasing returns postulate gained wider acceptance through analyses of endogenous growth, international trade, unemployment, and the economics of ethics.
Existing customers are able to access the product services section, enabling them to get increasing returns on their investment in Rhapsody and Statemate products, assisted by experts in the Professional Services Group.
Arthur there distinguishes between a new economics of "knowledge based" technologies, which are supposedly fraught with increasing returns, and the old economics of "resource based" technologies (for example, farming, mining, building), which supposedly were not.
The most traditional concept of increasing returns comes from Adam Smith, Marshall, and Allyn Young (see Buchanan and Yoon).
In that context, "increasing returns" - rather than a reason for technological optimism - becomes a two-by-four with which to hit any company that itself may experience increasing returns from a new technology, and thus develop a monopoly.
Integral to the GERS solution set are Business Intelligence applications for predictive modeling and decision support, Merchandise Planning and Allocation tools for increasing returns on inventory investments and Supply Chain solutions for streamlining communications and maximizing productivity across the enterprise.
Integral to the GERS solution set are Business Intelligence applications for predictive modeling and decision support, Merchandise Planning and Allocation tools for increasing returns on inventory investments, and Supply Chain solutions for streamlining communications and maximizing productivity across the enterprise.