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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
In developing countries, pre-service teacher preparation (that is, graduating from college with a teaching credential) is not always required; as a consequence, in-service training is often the only preparation teachers receive.
For example, the study of Mohammadi [3] evaluated the process of continuing education for nurses working in Ardabil hospitals and 50% evaluated in-service training condution as moderate and Hatimi [16] studied the effectiveness of in-service training to increase knowledge, attitudes and skills of administrators, faculty and staff in an Islamic Azad University and showed that in-service training had the same effectiveness in three categories.
However, despite the numerous efforts to conduct effective inservice training courses in the last decades, different operating staffs have stated the fact that the in-service training structure is not adequate and suitable in every context (Europaea, 2007, p.2).
The aims of in-service training are to accommodate the teachers coming from pre-service training into the system, to understand the goals of national education, school and lessons and to have a common opinion in practice, to provide what is inadequate in pre-service training, to furnish them with the information, skills and attitudes required by the educational innovations and to enable brilliant ane competent personnel make an advance and their progress in their careers (B.
Details of Income Earnings/Productivity to the Sponsoring Company as a Result of the Participant's Absence from Duty Station (on Deputation to the In-service Training Programme)
Now Estyn has found that a special training programme run by the WJEC is helping Welsh-language teaching, but in-service training run by the WJEC is not working well.
Results from the national study indicated four features as important for consideration by local administrators when planning in-service training for special education personnel.
They require an eight-hour pre-assignment training course, a 16-hour on-the-job training course and an eight-hour annual in-service training course.
In police departments, those tasked with research, analysis and planning, legal affairs, and in-service training will find this book an excellent reference for policy development or search and seizure law.
MED-PASS's line of SmartStaff[TM] In-Service Training Programs covers a range of care topics, including incontinence and pressure ulcer programs updated to reflect new CMS guidelines.
Turkey restricted use of career assessment instruments to certified guidance personnel who have completed in-service training. Turkish employment institutions and the Ministry of National Education typically determined the qualifications that service providers must possess.

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