The second strategy involves replacing the missing values with two or more imputed values
in order to reflect uncertainty about which value to impute.
Distribution of Imputed Values
of Prolonging a Statistical
In addition, both random draw and hot deck are single imputation methods, which treat imputed values
Finally, the imputed values
and the ground truth values are compared in order to evaluate the imputation performance.
GDP has been getting more abstract concept containing wire range of imputed values
as imputed rents, value added of research and development, consumption of fixed capital or the estimation of the size of shadow economy.
Despite its popularity, this method of using imputed values
to compute a sample geometric mean which is used to estimate the population geometric mean (needed in many common statistical analyses) has not been adequately reviewed in the statistical literature.
With these new imputed values
, we can compare the actual income reported in the CE to the imputed value
That is, variance estimates based on the complete data (the observed data with imputed values
replacing the missing data) will be biased downwards because the imputed data does not contain information about uncertainty in the parameter estimates used in the imputation [11, 20-22].
Secondly, the selection of model used to generate the imputed values
must be well suited with the subsequent analysis so that it can conserve the associations among variables that will be the focus of later analysis.
As expected the imputed values
and variance with 10% missing data are larger than 5% missing data.