culture

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culture

The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
It is in this sense that he can speak of the person as the ontic-cause of human culture as well as the subject and object of human culture, that is the subject engaging in action and the object of the action in the self-fulfillment of the one (and collectively of those) acting (Wojtyla, 1977, pp.
This doesn't mean that other facets of human culture should be devalued.
The Seminar, hosted by Chicago University of the U.S.A aims at showcasing the Sultanate as one of the countries interested in human culture and highlighting Oman's historic and cultural role in the Indian Ocean, especially the Sultanate is one of the founders of the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Co-operation (IOR-ARC).
I always like to think that libraries are the bastions of open and free access to the record of human culture and knowledge.
Describing Iran as the cradle of global civilization and valuable wealth in human culture, he said that Tirana mulls expanding economic cooperation with Iran.
During a meeting with journalists at the ministry of culture, Awajan stressed the need to bolster human culture and the Jordanian approach of tolerance, and cement the values of justice in society.
He commended the crucial role of the press in enhancing social awareness, instilling human culture and knowledge.
In Cells to Civilizations, Coen explains how evolution, development, learning, and human culture all change through a common recipe that is based on seven key principles.
The series presents works that are recognized by Muslim scholars as being early and important in their fields, are broadly recognized as important by international scholars, and have had a genuinely significant impact on the development of human culture. Al-Suyruti (849-911/1445-1505) was a foremost scholar and imam who lived his whole life in Cairo, and this commentary on the Qur'an is not only the most important of his many books, but also one of the most comprehensive and authoritative Qur'an commentary ever written.
AS THOUGH POINTING to the veracity of the claim made by Blessed Cardinal John Henry Newman in The Idea of a University that the circle of knowledge is "mutilated" and in need of reform when theology is dropped from it, there have been several recent claims that in postmodern thinking the category of the theological "has now returned with a vengeance," and that we are witnessing in several notable contemporary philosophers a "'turn to religion' and to monotheism in particular." (1) Few participants in the contemporary discourse concerning the nature of the human person and the origin and idea of human culture have reasserted the continuing vitality of Christianity more powerfully than Rene Girard.
From them I had been warned of the idolatrous tendencies of the religions generally in their quest of an ideal completeness gained through the resources of human culture and historical achievement.
Friday in the Soreng Theater at the Hult Center, Seventh Avenue and Willamette Street, writer and McKenzie River valley resident Barry Lopez will read and reflect on his lifelong study of the natural world and human culture.

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