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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
This doesn't mean that other facets of human culture should be devalued.
Clovis is the name archaeologists have given to the earliest well-established human culture in the North American continent.
He has been actively engaged with many of the most prominent intellectual movements in the humanities from the 1960s through today, but throughout that time he has become increasingly direct and persuasive in his assertion of the truth of biblical revelation in our efforts to understand all areas of human culture and to find salvation from the violence that is deeply ingrained in it.
The discovery was during the excavations of the Syrian-French joint expedition, it proves that the Syrian Hawk is 5 millenniums older than all other sculptures, which proves, in return, the historic role of the region where the sculpture was first created and then spread out to the whole world along with other aspects of the Syrian culture in contribution to human culture.
From them I had been warned of the idolatrous tendencies of the religions generally in their quest of an ideal completeness gained through the resources of human culture and historical achievement.
Friday in the Soreng Theater at the Hult Center, Seventh Avenue and Willamette Street, writer and McKenzie River valley resident Barry Lopez will read and reflect on his lifelong study of the natural world and human culture.
If true, this supposition rules out ontological discontinuities in the process of hominization and in the evolution of human culture.
For, by Biblical account, the building of that Tower was discontinued when God intervened to bring His original motive back to human culture.
Here, archaeologists reconsider that view by presenting accounts of women's contributions in the advance of human culture.
While deterioration on this scale is appalling anywhere, it's especially so when the body of water in question has such deep resonance in human culture.
The mission of this collection is to provide discourse for a progressive Kemetic axiology that can inform our reality as we place good values, respect, and key principles of human culture at the head of our consciousness.
People, civilizations, and even works of art and cities vanish, leaving human culture to be defined as much by their absence as their presence.

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