They are all specified from multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) during retina development in an ordered fashion that retinal ganglion cells (GC) are born first, followed by photoreceptor cells (PRC), amacrine cells (AC), horizontal cells
(HC), and lastly by bipolar cells (BC) and Muller glial cells (MC) (Figure 4(a)) [10, 25].
Serial 10 [micro]m cryosections were evaluated for the expression of PKC[alpha] (rod bipolar cells), iGluR4 (OFF bipolar cells), mGluR6 (ON bipolar cells), GFAP (activated Muller cells), calretinin (all amacrine cells), calbindin (horizontal cells
), and Bassoon (synaptic ribbon).
Hallbook, "Axon-bearing and axon-less horizontal cell
subtypes are generated consecutively during chick retinal development from progenitors that are sensitive to follistatin," BMC Developmental Biology, vol.
Although the possibility remains that zinc exerts a direct effect on calcium channels, its effect on transmitter release may derive from its ability to modulate the hemichannel currents on horizontal cells
at the photoreceptor synapse.
The present study was designed to determine the effects of zinc on hemichannels formed by Cx26, a connexin expressed on dendrites of carp horizontal cells
. In addition, we examined whether histidine, a zinc chelator, blocked the action of zinc or exerted a direct effect on Cx26 hemichannel currents.
are second order retinal neurons that receive direct input from photoreceptors and are involved in establishing a number of key features of visual perception.
The skate horizontal cell
can serve as a glutamate electrode, monitoring the amount of photoreceptor transmitter released; i.e., an increase in photoreceptor transmitter release will be reflected in an increase in horizontal cell
The intervening layers incorporate several types of cell with large dendritic arbors, divided into horizontal cells
that control for different illumination conditions and feedback to the receptor and bipolar cells and amacrine cells that feed into the center-surround organization of the Retinal Ganglion Cells.
Researchers at the Scripps Research Institute in California, US, focused on amacrine and horizontal cells
in mice two types of neuron involved in the visual signalling pathway.
Photoreceptors (rods and cones), horizontal cells
, bipolar and ganglion cells showed positivity for the Anti-Otx2 antibody, on the contrary of Muller cells.
In the PNAS article, they demonstrated a nearly two-fold variation in the number of interneurons called horizontal cells
. In the IOVS article, they report a conspicuous variation in the number of cone photoreceptors.