We call this "horizontal analysis
." The method compared the average value of each metric in 2007, 2009 and 2018 to see if companies did better or worse in each year.
It describes the different phases of a research process and different epistemological stances in qualitative inquiry, designing a research project, choosing an approach to guide methodological decisions, choosing tools for fieldwork, ethical challenges, preparing for analysis and validity requirements, the stages of vertical and horizontal analysis
, and theorizing and presenting results, with examples of real research in action.
Two kinds of analysis were performed: a horizontal analysis
, where the performance of each PV string was compared with other strings and with the target, over one year of observation, and a vertical analysis, where the performance of each string is compared with itself over four years of observation.
A horizontal analysis
can be conducted on net income compared to assets over several years and used to determine if growth in the figure is typical for the industry or looks out of the ordinary.
The company also introduced the multi X 2500, which uses double furnace technology and features a tilting furnace that combines the advantages of both vertical and horizontal analysis
on a single-analysis system.
"We are going to carry out a horizontal analysis
of the reform process," explained Slovenia's Ambassador in Brussels, Igor Sen ar.
Learning Objective 1 * To define "comparative financial statements" and conduct a horizontal analysis
and trend analysis.
It will be a question of proceeding with a horizontal analysis
of the process to reform the treaties and considering a dozen elements which will have to be implemented.
The text defines five types of analytical procedures (horizontal analysis
, vertical analysis, variance analysis, ratio analysis, and comparison with other operating information), but fails to provide detailed examples of how to use each of these techniques.
uses comparative financial statements for two or more successive periods and either a base-year-to-date or a year-to-year approach.
The author specifically addresses three auditing techniques--ratio analysis, horizontal analysis
, and vertical analysis--that investigators can use to systemically analyze financial statements for investigative leads.