Horizontal Agreement

Horizontal Agreement

An agreement between two companies at the same level on the supply chain to work together. At its worst, a horizontal agreement can indicate collusion. However, this is ordinarily not the case; for example, companies may agree to pool their marketing resources for mutual benefit.
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A horizontal agreement between Azerbaijan and the EC was signed in July 2009.
The leaders also welcomed the operationalisation of the EU-India Horizontal Agreement which will enhance air connectivity between India and Europe and help foster greater people-to-people contacts, business travel and increase in tourism.
They also raised concerns about the appearance of "collusive" behavior between the PLDT-Globe duopoly in a deal that "can be considered tantamount to horizontal agreement prohibited under the law.
FINLAND: An MoU was signed with Finland by which the provisions namely code share, intermodal services, routing flexibility and open sky on cargo, which are mandatory requirement of Horizontal Agreement coming into force were agreed to by Finland.
It should be known that European authorities have divided the issue of open sky in two phases, the signing of a horizontal agreement which stipulates the elimination of the designation by nationality of the company before replacing it with another European.
Similar to the RSNs, there is no horizontal agreement between MVPDs, which are truly direct competitors.
In those circumstances, several individual vertical agreements can be perceived as parts of a broader horizontal agreement among the suppliers, either instigated or merely facilitated by the reseller-customer.
The document contains provisions of so-called horizontal agreement, which is intended to bring existing agreement in air services between Kazakhstan and the European Union in line with EU legislation.
Under antitrust laws, a defendant's desire to save costs -- and thereby increase profits at the expense of other participants in the market -- is not a legitimate justification for the grant-in-aid cap or any other horizontal agreement to restrict price or output," the lawsuit stated.
The easier and more effective parallel exclusion is, the less likely it is to be addressed under antitrust doctrine that focuses on horizontal agreement among the excluders.
Each of these is a horizontal agreement, but they are also legal.
The GCCA official said that the UAE was in discussions with the European Union to have a horizontal agreement on open sky policies instead of talking to individual member countries of the Union.