The regions of interest were the CA3 stratum radiatum and the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the dorsal hippocampal formation
. Their boundaries were defined using a 4x objective optical microscope (Nikon Eclipse 80i, Japan) equipped with a motorized stage to control the X, Y, and Z coordinates with help of a stage controller (MAC6000, Ludl Electronic Products, Hawthorne, NY, USA).
serves important functions in learning and memory performance [29, 30], which are highly sensitive to ischemia and hypoxia .
In relation to genes that code for receptors, there is medium expression of the HTR1A gene in the frontal lobe, and high expression in the insula, cingulate gyrus, claustrum and hippocampal formation
By far the most prominent source of afferents to the hippocampal formation
is the adjacent entorhinal cortex (olfactory association area).
Abou-Khaled et al., "Diffusion tensor imaging of the hippocampal formation
in temporal lobe epilepsy," American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol.
It has been shown that the hippocampal formation
is particular important in spatial learning and memory.
Alterations in Hippocampal Formation
of Adult Patients with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
In two studies with rats exposed to brain injury, the numbers of neurons in sham groups showed no dimorphism within each subregion of the hippocampal formation
Professor Neil Burgess, who leads the team, commented: "The parts of the brain which show signs of grid cells - the hippocampal formation
and associated brain areas - are already known to help us navigate our environment and are also critical for autobiographical memory.
Dysfunction indicated by abnormal cerebral blood volume in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampal formation
is associated with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders to the extent that it predicts disease progression in prodromal patients and correlates with clinical symptoms in both prodromal and schizophrenia patients, a small study has found.
Researchers review recent findings, particularly in psychology and pharmacology, on such aspects as molecular mechanisms of learning and memory as revealed by research on Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, motor learning in the cerebellum, seizure-induced synaptic plasticity, cocaine addiction, the medial pre-frontal cortex, mnemonic encoding by hippocampal formation
place cells, and dopamine-dependent synaptic plasticity in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops as mechanisms of visual attention.
The hippocampal formation
is also required in all mammals to form memories about space (Cimadevilla, Conejo, Miranda, & Arias, 2004; O'Keefe & Dostrovsky, 1971; Morris, Garrud, Rawlins, & O'Keefe, 1982; Hartley et al., 2007).