Although business and insurance groups never formed a unified opposition coalition (their interests were similar, though not entirely congruent), they uniformly opposed premium caps, community rating, the employer mandate, and the lack of competing HIPCs
(Association of Washington Business, 1994).
, which would act as a broker for employers and others who buy health insurance, would pay a fixed premium to the AHP.
) Initiative and Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI)--Status
Further, these initiatives will not be adequate in poverty reduction efforts of HIPCs
as it does not consider for the funds these nations need for expenditures on poverty eradication and for sustaining GDP growth [Birdsall and Deese (2004); Sachs (2002)].
Sichula, (2012) examined the paradox of debt overhang in the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC
) of the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
They urged the international community to include Sudan in the initiative of the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs
) and to resume development assistance, at the level of other post conflict countries.
(enacting permanent legislation before the sunset date because the evidence suggested that there was a benefit for HIPCs
with no adverse effects).
Eleven of 24 HIPCs
have been sued by private creditors.
Many developing economies, including those of least developed countries (LDCs), small island developing states (SIDS) and heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs
), are greatly dependent on commodities (Figure 1).
The first modern exchanges were the "health insurance purchasing coalitions" (HIPCs
.) Health producers had an easy way to beat the HIPCs
: Wait for them to implode.
In a process that has already taken 15 years -- and remains unfinished -- the debts of 35 highly indebted poor countries (HIPCs
) have been forgiven, at a cost of more than $100 billion.