Abbreviations: FQHC, Federally Qualified Health Center; HHI, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index
. Statistical significance: (***) P < 0.01, (**) P < 0.05, (*) P < 0.10.
The smaller the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index
, the fiercer the market competition was, so that market competition positively moderated the relationship between closeness centrality and charitable donation.
We use the herfindahl-hirschman index
to measure market concentration, which allows investigating the level of competition in the product market and its impact on the competitors' operational decisions (Ranieri, 2011).
The market concentration is measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index
(HHI) and the four risk factors are: capital risk, credit risk, liquidity risk, and overall risk (see details in Table 1).
As a yardstick for labor market concentration, the study calculated the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index
measure, similar to the application in Working Paper #24307.
Since reconductoring has affected many 150 kV lines on which wind farms are connected, an analysis of the zonal price of electricity in Sicily in last years will be carried out to demonstrate how this structural intervention, together with others , has allowed better integration of RES and therefore a decrease in zonal prices and in HHI index (Herfindahl-Hirschman index
The Herfindahl Index, as the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index
is more commonly known, measures concentration.
Two common measures are the Finger-Kreinin index of export diversification (10) and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index
of market concentration, both published by UNCTAD.
and hospital density were used to measure the level of competition.
Two approaches include (1) measuring the changes in the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index
(HHI) of market concentration for three seed sub-markets and (2) an approach which determines expected changes in market prices that would result from mergers in a market featuring differentiated products, in the absence of new entry.
com, Priceonomics found that Stanford University, UCLA, MIT, Columbia University and Rice University are the most diverse as defined by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index
, which is a statistical measure of diversity in various areas.