Table 1: The Probability That a Program in the Given Tier of the Column Is Truly Better Than a Program in the Given Tier of the Row System Tier 5 4 3 2 Five-tier 4 0.72 - - - 3 0.81 0.63 - - 2 0.91 0.78 0.66 1 0.98 0.92 0.86 0.75 Three-tier 2 - - 0.8.5 - 1 - - 1.00 0.90 Note: The program with a lower hazard ratio
is the better program.
Doubling the bias of cholesterol or HDL-C increases the absolute value of the difference in the hazard ratio
, but that for cholesterol has more of an effect (Figure 3).
Women who quit smoking during pregnancy had a hazard ratio
of 1.26, compared with nonsmokers, the authors said.
Participants who had any new partners during the study had a risk of infection more than three times that of their counterparts with no new partners (hazard ratio
for the association between asthma and respiratory mortality were significant at 2.03 and 5.87 for the older and younger groups, respectively.
They used a record linkage study with Cox proportional hazard ratios
adjusted for muscle strength, socioeconomic position, and age.
After adjusting for age, body mass index, baseline blood pressure and other potential confounders, the hazard ratio
for incident hypertension was 1.76 for older women in the highest quartile of the albumin/creatine ratio (median, 6.5 mg/g) compared to their peers in the lowest quartile (1.0 mg/g).
After adjustment for factors such as age, sex, smoking status, body mass index, cholesterol, and physical activity, those Whitehall II participants who reported sleeping 5 hours or less a night at the first interview had a hazard ratio
of death from all causes of 1.24, relative to those who slept 7 hours per night.
Patterns were similar for full and for any breast-feeding In Cox regression analyses, the risk of not being exclusively breast-fed was reduced among infants born in hospitals with low compliance (adjusted hazard ratio
, 0.9) and more so among infants born in hospitals with high compliance (0.8) relative to infants born in non-baby-friendly hospitals.
Among subjects who had TSH levels of 10 mIU/L or greater, the mean rate of HF was 36.9/1,000 person-years, with a hazard ratio
of 3.10 after adjusting for demographics, thyroid hormone use and other factors.
A significantly increased risk for attempted suicide was found in those with gestational age-adjusted short birth length, defined as length between 39 and 47 cm (hazard ratio
1.29), as well as in those born fourth or later in birth order (hazard ratio
The association remained significant after the investigators adjusted for age, sex, age of onset of RA, presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, alcohol consumption, and the use of a lipid-lowering agent (adjusted hazard ratio
, 1.25), said Dr.