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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
When he tested for HIV live on Facebook two years ago, there was a five-fold increase in orders for HIV tests from Terrence Higgins Trust.
The screening kits for HIV test will be provided by the Punjab AIDS Programme.
Studies point to a paradox regarding the use of the rapid HIV test in maternity hospitals: overuse while still living with missed opportunities for HIV diagnosis and prevention (7,8), indicating that care practices do not always follow ministerial recommendations.
Of these patients, 308 were approached for participation in the study, of which 144 ultimately participated in the study and had a POC HIV test (Figure 1).
I was waiting in the medical assessment and planning unit (MAPU) to give a positive HIV result to a patient who had had an HIV test added to his initial blood requests.
Outcome of the children (N=30) n (%) Discharged home after treating admission 21 (70) illness--no HIV test Reconsidered and 3 (10) signed consent for HIV testing and started HAART Died in hospital without 1 (3) knowing HIV status Mothers signed RHT 5 (17) Table 2.
When asked about cases in which an HIV test would not be offered, 8 of the 15 nurses replying choose patient acuity as the reason (53%).
(1.) Koku EF: Stigma, sexual risk and desire for HIV test in Ghana.
If we apply these principles to HST specifically, we submit that the following factors would need to be taken into account in establishing whether it could be in the child's best interests: (i) the emotional impact of a child discovering their HIV status on their own, and potentially without support; (ii) the possibility that adults could use self-testing to coerce children to be tested for HIV; (iii) the confidential nature of such testing, which may meet the needs of some adolescents with privacy concerns; (iv) the availability and accessibility of other forms of HIV testing; (v) the child's age, level of maturity and ability to cope with this particular form of testing; (vi) the views of the individual child on HST; and (vii) the capacity of the child to consent to the HIV test.
In a study that assessed education, gender equality and HIV testing in nationally representative samples of married or cohabiting women in Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe, 15-24-year-olds had an elevated likelihood of having ever had an HIV test or having had one in the past year if they had at least some secondary education (odds ratios, 1.8-3.4), but their role in making household financial decisions and attitude toward wife beating were not related to testing.
A rapid HIV test performed in the emergency department was positive.
Lack of awareness, fear of stigma and discrimination and inadequate service delivery prevent people from taking an HIV test.