Farmers are responding with four strategies: satisfy current workers to retain them, stretch them with mechanical aids that increase their productivity, substitute machines for workers, and supplement current workers with H-2A guest workers
In this study, we develop a quantitative general equilibrium (GE) model of native workers, assess the impact of various guest worker
programs on the Japanese economy, and evaluate the welfare effects of these programs on the native Japanese.
It seems clear, then, that broad, diverse immigration policies can strengthen the nation, while targeted, restrictive guest worker
policies are more likely to undermine it.
Historically, guest worker
programs in the United States served as a solution for addressing the shortfall of workers during wartime.
During the first attempt to deal with illegal migration in the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986, farm employers and worker advocates eventually agreed on a compromise that legalized unauthorized farm workers who had completed at least 90 days of farm work in 1985-86 and made employer-friendly changes to the then agricultural guest worker
program, whose name was changed from H-2 to H-2A.
Committee ranking member Jeff Sessions (R-Ala.) led the opposition to the guest worker
program, arguing that temporary farm workers should have shorter stays working in the United States.
This exemption attracted business opportunities, which led to a high demand for guest workers
. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advises the US Citizenship and Immigration Services of vaccination requirements for those applying for immigration and work visas before the applications are approved (1).
In The Guest Worker
Question in Postwar Germany, Rita Chin guides us through fifty years of public debates about labour migration and multiculturalism in the Federal Republic of Germany.
The first chapter sets the tone here, entitled "Aras Oren and the Guest Worker
Question." Her literary analysis and her explanation of the strategies these writers and artists have followed to find their voice and gain a hearing in Germany are extraordinary.
The Bush administration also made changes to the H-2A guest worker
program so the government will not have to provide oversight of workers' housing and worksite conditions.
A guest worker
scheme no doubt would benefit the individuals lucky enough to be selected to participate in it, but it is not a development solution for the Pacific.
The most important contribution of Chin's work to scholarship in the field lies in her remarkably thorough and systematic evaluation of thus far neglected issues inherent in the guest worker
question within the context of Germany as well as Western Europe at large.