Integrins, such as the [alpha]9[beta]1 heterodimer, are highly expressed during CNS development at the axonal cell surface to aid growth cone
formation and axonal elongation.
Bridgman, "Retrograde flow rate is increased in growth cones
from myosin IIB knockout mice," Journal of Cell Science, vol.
Time-lapse movies indicate that these mutants fail to form stable growth cones
, which is a required first step for successful axon regeneration.
Chihara et al., "Phosphorylation of collapsin response mediator protein-2 by Rho-kinase: evidence for two separate signaling pathways for growth cone
collapse, " Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Calcium regulation of neurite elongation and growth cone
Assembly of microtubules in growth cones
: the role of microtubule-associated proteins.
Dissociated adult Rana pipiens motoneuron growth cones
turn up concentration gradients of denervated peripheral nerve-released factors.
As the growth cone
moves through the environment, receptors on its filopodial structure allow maximum contact with the specific guidance signals, located within the extracellular matrix or the surface of nearby axons (Goldberg & Burmeister, 1989).
Bryan argued that his reserve growth cones
, reproduced as Chart 3, allowed the FOMC to track the behavior of reserves relative to the path stated in the directive.
The collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) is an intracellular protein discovered in a screen for components of the semaphorin 3A (originally named collapsin ) signaling pathway that mediates the collapse response of the growth cone
If microtubule structure is experimentally destabilized in a growth cone
, it becomes more like a refraction bulb, and, as a consequence, axonal growth stops.
These findings pointed out the importance of investigating the environmental molecules that drive growth cone
guidance during adult CNS regeneration.