The Brennan Center report distinguishes between dark money, which it defines as "election spending by entities that do not publicly disclose their donor," and another form of spending it calls "gray money
." The report defines gray money
as expenditures by entities that do disclose their contributors - but who also list dark money organizations as donors, making it difficult or impossible to locate the original source of the money.
The post Gray Money
appeared first on Executive Magazine.
One supporter wrote: "New deals for Gary and his staff as well as the Gray money
What's worse, Turkey has virtually turned into a haven of black and gray money
. As seen in the cases of Reza Zarrab and Babak Zanjani, who channeled Iran's semi-legitimate billions of dollars, excluded from the international financial system due to sanctions on that country, into Turkey's financial system, the Turkish financial system has grown all the more troubled.
"Black and gray money
poured into the stock exchanges, joint ventures, cooperatives, banks, and joint stock companies that were otherwise celebrated abroad as harbingers of economic reform." By the late 1980s, according to Russian analysts, most of the small cooperative businesses established during perestroika were either controlled by criminal elements or heavily in debt to them.
It is Erdoy-an's mentality that organizes the circulation in Turkey of the monies earned through corrupt practices, although those funds are described as "black money" or "gray money
" by the international financial system.
At a time when Iran was under international sanctions, they made Turkey a country that laundered Iran's energy money worth tens of millions of euros, which, in the best definition, could be considered semi-legal or gray money
in the context of the international financial system.