Base-closing, like Gramm-Rudman
, (16) was a weak form of entrenchment: It did not prohibit repeal by a majority, but it did try to raise the costs of such a repeal by institutionalizing the task at hand in an agency outside Congress.
Even after congressional passage of the Gramm-Rudman
legislation, Rudman finds himself at a White House ceremony where the president touts lower taxes and tax reform, while barely acknowledging his deficit-cutting efforts, along with those of Senators Gramm and Hollings.
His most renowned handiwork was Gramm-Rudman
, but he also spent tremendous energy at home converting Texas Democrats to Republicans and pushing GOP candidates.
deficit, budget dissensus, and the less than satisfactory performance of the Gramm-Rudman
deficit reduction procedure) argues against the likelihood of such restraint in the U.S.
national holiday, protected critical domestic programs like Social Security from automatic Gramm-Rudman
cuts, and imposed economic sanctions on South Africa over President Reagan's veto.
This means that budget planners can't draw from the fund in their efforts to confront the growing deficit under the Gramm-Rudman
It came as a surprise to many, given the travel cutbacks imposed by the Gramm-Rudman
Balanced Budget Act, but the 1990 symposium of the American Vacuum Society in Toronto in mid-October did very well.
The imposition of Gramm-Rudman
may be a blessing in disguise -- it can be counted upon that many American voters will become intensely interested and involved in our political process.
The $28.7 billion nondefense R&D budget proposal (an 11.7% increase) will likely be cut dramatically to help reach the $64 billion Gramm-Rudman
target for fiscal 1991.
Another worry is the possibility that, if real GNP growth were less than 1 percent again in the first quarter, the Gramm-Rudman
deficit targets could be suspended.
Another gimmick used to meet Gramm-Rudman
targets is to shift federal paydays from the next fiscal year to the current year.
The large increase for Va may be trimmed a bit because of the Gramm-Rudman
budget sequestration ordered by President Bush in October.