The upregulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines and cytokine receptors is localized to the type-I glomus cell
and is also expressed in the type-II cell and immune cells in the carotid body in sustained hypoxia [15, 29].
Histopathologic section showed skin with the dermis showing a well-circumscribed lesion composed of tight convolutes of mainly thin-walled and occasionally thick-walled, dilated, congested blood vessels of varying sizes surrounded by collars of glomus cells
. These cells were rounded with sharply punched-out, rounded nucleus and a clear to amphophilic cytoplasm.
Histologically, a proliferation of blood vessels surrounded by glomus cells
Glomus tumors show abundant dilated, thin-walled blood vessels, are lined by a single layer of endothelial cells, and are surrounded by nests of uniform and round glomus cells
, which are strongly positive for smooth muscle actin and vimentin.
Histopathology examination of typical glomus tumors shows a mixed variable proportion of glomus cells
, smooth muscle cells, and blood vessels .
Microscopically, these tumors contain branching vascular channels that are lined with endotheliocytes and interspersed by uniformly round or ovoid glomus cells
. The lesion cells are lightly eosinophilic.
Paragangliomas are rare, generally benign tumors that arise from cells called glomus cells
, which are located along blood vessels and play a role in regulating blood pressure and blood flow.