Ludwig von Bertalanffy, General System Theory
: Foundations, Development, Applications, George Braziller, New York, 1968.
In fact, however, Hegel's explanations of general system features are at least as specified as numerous early definitions from system theory, whether Bahm's characterization of systems as quite generally involving "a unity or wholeness of some sort that holds its parts together," (24) Bertalannfy's view that they are "a set of elements standing in interrelations," or Hall's and Fagen's view that they are "a set of objects together with relationships between the objects and between their attributes." (25) Further, Hegel clearly shared the methodological considerations that Rapports thinks define the discipline: "General system theory
subsumes an outlook or a methodology rather than a theory in the sense ascribed to this term in science.
An outline of general system theory
. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 1: 134-165.
Because closed systems are in a steady state, they are not applicable to living organisms--hence, the need for a general system theory
that can be applied to biology, information theory, cybernetics, and social sciences.
Using general system theory
(GST) (Bertalanffy, 1968) principles, I examine effective IT use and compare it with the typical way information has been exchanged among agencies; the major difference is the way in which the client is incorporated in the information flow.
In the general system theory
, a breakdown in the individual classroom or home creates breakdowns in all other systems, impacting the global system.
Ludwig von Bertalanffy: Perspectives on General System Theory