Caption: FIGURE 3: The tube heat exchanger inserted with V-orifice at various gap ratios.
The augmentation of the gap ratio leads to decrease in the Nusselt number.
The reason being that in this case, the true wage gap would be even smaller than that observed in the data, which leads to even larger gap ratios and, hence, indicates more severe mismeasurement.
Specifically, the ratio of the gap in value added per hour to the wage gap (gap ratio) is significantly larger than 0.7; this is true for all countries in our sample.
It was shown that relatively thick films with gap ratios close to unity are not limited by air entrainment at ambient conditions.
In contrast to that, the gap ratio effects the whole orientation of the triangle, which would be turned toward positive pressure gradients for smaller film heights or higher gaps.
As noted by Osberg and Xu (1999), the SST index combines the poverty rate, the average poverty gap ratio, and inequality in poverty gaps and, unlike many other poverty measures, can be decomposed into three components: (1) the percentage change in the poverty rate; (2) the percentage change in the average poverty gap ratio among the poor; and (3) the Gini index of inequality in the poverty gap ratios of the entire population.
A household weight was constructed to adjust the poverty gap ratio. Finally, the Gini coefficient values for the poverty gap ratio were computed using an income inequality calculator.
In order to estimate technical efficiency and technology gap ratios
using data envelopment analysis, we utilize the DEAP computer program developed by Coelli (1998).
 investigate the flow pattern for a wide range of gap ratios
. It is reported that for in-line tube bundle five distinct regions are formed.
The chosen indicators on men and women are used to calculate gender gap ratios
, by mostly expressing the achievement of women as a proportion of men.
The range of wet thickness-to-slot gap ratio
(h/H) was from 0.2 to 0.6, where h is the wet thickness of each layer, and H is the distance between, the slot die and steel roll.