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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Treatment protocol: Traditional Gait Training Group (TGTG): Traditional gait training exercises were given to the control group for four days a week with session duration 40-50 minutes.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of robotic gait training and gait-focused physical therapy programs for children and youth with cerebral palsy: a mixed methods RCT.
This study is the first, to our knowledge, to investigate the feasibility and consequences of the association of gait training and balance challenges using PBWSTT on functionality, cardiopulmonary capacity, and quality of life in SCA individuals.
The patients were allocated into two groups according to the treatment received for gait training: therapist-assisted gait training (TAGT) and robot-assisted gait training (RAGT).
In addition, because the range of motion in cycling is greater than that in walking, cycling could help maintaining functional range of motion as a preparation for gait training in the future [31].
Based on our experience, we propose that gait training using the HAL exoskeleton robot be used to provide a safe and feasible intervention to improve functional gait in patients with chronic spinal cord disorders.
"The non-trajectory based approach of Indego's Therapy+ software offers an opportunity for gait training, which hasn't been previously...available in exoskeletons," said Candy Tefertiller, therapy director at Craig Hospital in Englewood, Colo., one of the nine study centers."We are very excited and look forward to explore its fullest potential."
The participants were assessed at three different time points throughout the course of the study: (a) baseline (within one week prior to starting the gait training program); (b) post-intervention (within one week after completing the gait training program); and (c) two-month follow-up (two months after formally completing the gait training intervention).
For people with chronic (>12 mo) SCI, it is still unclear what specific gait training modality provides the best outcomes.
In this study, we used task specific exercises, gait training, and a new method of visual BFB to test the hypothesis that patients after stroke are able to control distal spastic/weak muscles and correct equinovarus foot placement.
Physical therapists are involved in high-risk patient-handling tasks on a daily basis, which include patient transfers, repositioning, and gait training. Therapeutic handling of patients often involves manual lifting, static holding, and maintaining adverse postures over prolonged periods.