Articles of Confederation, Alexander Hamilton argued in Federalist
In The Federalist
Society: How Conservatives Took the Law Back from Liberals, Michael Avery and Danielle McLaughlin describe how the Federalist
Society groomed an entire generation of lawyers and judges to advocate a specific worldview, and how that worldview has impacted several areas of law.
As further evidence of desperation, Sharp notes the willingness of Republicans to nominate, and Federalists
to embrace, such an unqualified leader as Burr.
The Spy cautioned people not to be taken in by the "nefarious designs" of the Federalist
James Madison's Federalist
10 is likely among the first primary texts of constitutional theory the modern American high school student encounters, and, if her experience is anything like my own, it is presented as emblematic of the Founders' structural insight into the moderating virtues of a pluralistic democracy.
While the Federalists
sought to control "human" nature of this sort, they wanted to do so within republican institutions.
Furthermore, the two were political rivals: Marshall, a Federalist
, had been George Washington's aide during the Revolutionary War, Secretary of State and personal confidant to President Adams, and Adams's appointee as Chief Justice during his final weeks in office.
This is not a model propitious to fine-tuned federalist
discussions like the ones the famous Bilingualism and Biculturalism Commission animated 40 years ago.
Rather, it was the leading Federalist
exponent of the Constitution, Madison, who was not about to weaken or erase federal powers that he himself had written into the Constitution.
David Hackett Fischer, The Revolution of American Conservatism: The Federalist
Party in the Era of Jeffersonian Democracy (New York, 1965); Doron Ben-Atar and Barbara Oberg, eds.
The researchers considered the same writing habits that analysts of the Federalist
Papers had relied on.
That is why they buttressed those words with checks and balances, described by Madison's Federalist
51 as ``so contriving the interior structure of the government as that its several constituent parts may, by their mutual relations, be the means of keeping each other in their proper places.