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the force or process which impels people to behave in the way that they do. In a work setting, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. In OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY two basic conceptions of motivation can be discerned: ‘needs’ theory and ‘expectancy’ theory Possibly the best known of the former is the ‘hierarchy of needs’ identified by Abraham Maslow (1908-70). He argued that individuals have intrinsic needs which they are impelled to seek to satisfy. These needs, which are ordered in a hierarchy are physical needs (food, warmth, shelter), security needs (safety, home), ego needs (esteem, status) and self-actualization needs (the realization of individual potential). Initially, the lower order needs such as safety determine behaviour but once these are satisfied higher order needs come to dominate. Maslow's theory has been widely criticized, however, for assuming that such needs are universal and that they are always ordered in this particular hierarchy.

Other needs theories include Herzberg's ‘Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. He argued that people are motivated by two kinds of need: hygiene factors (those basic needs such as shelter which, if not satisfied, lead to unhappiness but whose satisfaction does not in itself lead to happiness); and motivators (those higher order needs which when satisfied lead to contentment). The importance of this theory in a work setting is its insistence that managers have to ensure that both hygiene factors (i.e. pay, working conditions) and motivation (i.e. the need for personal fulfilment) are satisfied for a workforce to be content and highly motivated.

A further ‘needs’ theory is the ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of Clayton Alderfer (1940 -). Like Maslow he suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs but that the less a high level need is satisfied the more important a lower level need becomes. Hence demands for more pay in fact really reflect a desire for work to be made more satisfying.

The main alternative approach to ‘needs’ theories is the ‘expectancy’ approach associated with Victor Vroom (1932 -). This suggests that individuals are motivated to act in certain ways not by some basic inner need but by the strength of the expectation that the action will achieve a result seen by them as desirable. The desire for a particular outcome is known as the ‘valence’. This theory is essentially a ‘process’ theory: it emphasizes the process of motivation rather than the nature or content of particular motivators. The strength of people's motivation will be determined by weighing up how much they want something and how far they believe a certain action will contribute to achieving it.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
Those who engaged in fitness and exercise showed higher levels of body-related motivation related to extrinsic motivation. The high intrinsic motivation level of the participants in the current study suggests that they are participating in rock climbing for the interest and enjoyment of the activity itself and not for external rewards.
Influence of coaches' autonomy support on athletes' motivation and sport performance: A test of the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 155-161.
While intrinsically motivated employees would be more inclined to develop skills required for highly ambiguous and uncertain task of knowledge absorption, extrinsic motivation would induce some form of 'short-termism' among individuals who refrain from pursuing new (and thus uncertain) ideas that might not have clearly observable and directly measurable outcomes.
Between these two extremes are four forms of extrinsic motivation, organized by degree of autonomy or self-determination, which correspond to four regulatory styles (Ryan & Deci, 2000a).
The AMS comprises 28 items that measure motivation using seven sub domains of motivation: Amotivation (AMOT), Extrinsic Motivation External Regulation (EMER), Extrinsic Motivation Introjection (EMIN), Extrinsic Motivation Identification (EMID), Intrinsic Motivation to Accomplish (IMTA), Intrinsic Motivation to Know (IMTK), and Intrinsic Motivation to Stimulate (IMTS).
Obese class students exhibited higher degree of extrinsic motivation and amotivation.
Therefore, the goal of this study is to explore the effect that a gamified instant feedback system for English learning has on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, learning engagement, and attention.
The researchers Helm Steve and Griego (2009), state that motivation suppositions are based on intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation which contributes to the employees' interest in entrepreneurship.
The influence of extrinsic motivation is reflected in the behavior where the employees focus on tangible outcomes of performing certain activities.
The first section discusses the theories behind motivation (particularly the self-determination theory of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation), models for the application of motivational theories in the classroom, ways to promote motivation, fun in relation to education, and instructional techniques involving humor, games, and group work, followed by the second section, which apples the theories to the threshold concepts in the Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education, with lesson plans aligned with each of the instructional techniques, along with assessments, modifications, and accommodations.
Globally, sdt holds that the degree of self-regulation depends on the individual's level of regulation, which in turn varies along a continuum of three types of motivation: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991).