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the force or process which impels people to behave in the way that they do. In a work setting, motivation can be viewed as that which determines whether workers expend the degree of effort necessary to achieve required task objectives. In OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY two basic conceptions of motivation can be discerned: ‘needs’ theory and ‘expectancy’ theory Possibly the best known of the former is the ‘hierarchy of needs’ identified by Abraham Maslow (1908-70). He argued that individuals have intrinsic needs which they are impelled to seek to satisfy. These needs, which are ordered in a hierarchy are physical needs (food, warmth, shelter), security needs (safety, home), ego needs (esteem, status) and self-actualization needs (the realization of individual potential). Initially, the lower order needs such as safety determine behaviour but once these are satisfied higher order needs come to dominate. Maslow's theory has been widely criticized, however, for assuming that such needs are universal and that they are always ordered in this particular hierarchy.

Other needs theories include Herzberg's ‘Two Factor Theory of Motivation’. He argued that people are motivated by two kinds of need: hygiene factors (those basic needs such as shelter which, if not satisfied, lead to unhappiness but whose satisfaction does not in itself lead to happiness); and motivators (those higher order needs which when satisfied lead to contentment). The importance of this theory in a work setting is its insistence that managers have to ensure that both hygiene factors (i.e. pay, working conditions) and motivation (i.e. the need for personal fulfilment) are satisfied for a workforce to be content and highly motivated.

A further ‘needs’ theory is the ERG (Existence, Relatedness and Growth) theory of Clayton Alderfer (1940 -). Like Maslow he suggests that there is a hierarchy of needs but that the less a high level need is satisfied the more important a lower level need becomes. Hence demands for more pay in fact really reflect a desire for work to be made more satisfying.

The main alternative approach to ‘needs’ theories is the ‘expectancy’ approach associated with Victor Vroom (1932 -). This suggests that individuals are motivated to act in certain ways not by some basic inner need but by the strength of the expectation that the action will achieve a result seen by them as desirable. The desire for a particular outcome is known as the ‘valence’. This theory is essentially a ‘process’ theory: it emphasizes the process of motivation rather than the nature or content of particular motivators. The strength of people's motivation will be determined by weighing up how much they want something and how far they believe a certain action will contribute to achieving it.

References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, using visitor intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, as well as the perception of service quality approach in the SERVPERF, we proposed the following two hypotheses:
Motivational synergy: Toward new conceptualizations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in the workplace.
2012) found that academic intrinsic motivation was a small positive correlate of GPA, though extrinsic motivation was not associated with GPA.
As extrinsic motivation is high, it reflects that the lecturers are committed in conducting their duties and motivated to become excellent employees.
Thus extrinsic motivation is related to the action that is done to get some rewards (Coetzee, 2011).
It is expected that with the maturation and guiding the individual by a professional field (sports performance, for example), extrinsic motivation to decrease in size, being replaced by motivations type intrinsic, which decreases efoturile psihonervoase directed to self-discipline and continuous and implucit increase individual performance.
So, some authors consider the existence of two types of motivation: the usually called intrinsic and extrinsic motivations.
This experiment did not measure intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, limiting the ability to establish the relationship between motivation and goal orientation.
AMS-university form consists of 28 questions and has seven-level likert scale, containing questions that measure intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation.
Among the main results, the author shows that meeting the three basic psychological needs favors the presence of intrinsic motivation and self-regulated forms of extrinsic motivation.
Extrinsic motivation refers to activities that are carried out to satisfy an external requirement or to avoid punishment.