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Fig. 58 Matrix. The matrix structure.


an ORGANIZATION structure in which individuals report to managers in more than one DEPARTMENT or function. The simple CHAIN OF COMMAND found in the classic BUREAUCRACY is replaced by (potentially) a multiplicity of reporting relationships. This type of structure may characterize part of the organization – for project team management for instance, where a project manager assumes authority over team members drawn from a number of departments – or it may extend to the entire organization. See Fig. 58.

There is no standard form of matrix. Managers may have equal formal authority over subordinates or alternatively one of these may have primary authority with the others, assuming authority on particular issues, as in the dotted-line relationship (see ORGANIZATION CHART). The benefits of matrix organization are said to be that it facilitates interdepartmental coordination during innovation, and, by weakening departmental boundaries, encourages greater flexibility and creativity. However, many organizations that have assumed this form have found that the absence of clarity in lines of authority and responsibility can lead to inertia and conflict. See FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE, PRODUCT-BASED STRUCTURE, CRITICAL FUNCTION STRUCTURE, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
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CD36 is a busy molecule, regularly making contact with a wide variety of proteins in the extracellular matrix and on neighboring cells.
Are factors originating from serum, plasma, or cultured cells involved in the growth-promoting effect of the extracellular matrix produced by cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells?
The carboxy terminus of dystrophin binds to a plasma membrane anchor, [beta]-dystroglycan, which is associated on the external side with the extracellular matrix receptor, [alpha]-dystroglycan, which binds to the basal lamina proteins laminin 1, laminin 2, and agrin.
The molecules of the extracellular matrix (ECM) comprise the connective tissues of animals and form basal laminae underlying sheets of epithelial cells.
The Extracellular Matrix for Vascular Repair has been implanted in more than 30,000 procedures.
to allow a greater delivery of oxygen and nutrients into the extracellular matrix to faciliate repair.
Lamina propria is the luminal portion of the propria-submucosa, which includes a dense layer of extracellular matrix and serosal layer.
"Our work elucidated a highly intriguing question: how cells move when they are in the complex and physiologically relevant environment of a 3-D extracellular matrix," said Hyun (Michel) Koo, a professor in the Department of Orthodontics at Penn's School of Dental Medicine.
The podosome rosettes set the scene for global extracellular matrix degradation and internalization.
They cover the extracellular matrix molecules and their importance in pathobiology and signaling; the function of glycans; the structure, pathobiology, and signaling of proteoglycans; the biological significance of matrix proteinases in health and disease; extracellular matrix cell surface receptors, insights into the folding, assembly, and functions of collagen; emerging aspects in the extracellular matrix pathobiology; and targeting the tumor microenvironment at the extracellular matrix level.
VEGF in mouse has three isoforms, VEGF 120, 164, and 188, that differ in their ability to bind heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix (ECM) (4, 5).
Articles here cover basic research on apoptotic cell signaling mechanisms, extracellular matrix interactions and MAP kinases, with topics such as hypoxia signal transduction, phosphoserine and threonine-binding domains, targeting of polycomb repressive complexes, conserved signaling mechanisms in innate immunity, and signal transduction by stress-activated MAP kinases, receptor signaling, protein kinase cascades as therapeutic targets, cell death in cancer, inflammation-specific signaling, cell signaling pathways leading to regulated chromatin modifications and transcriptional control.

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