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Fig. 58 Matrix. The matrix structure.


an ORGANIZATION structure in which individuals report to managers in more than one DEPARTMENT or function. The simple CHAIN OF COMMAND found in the classic BUREAUCRACY is replaced by (potentially) a multiplicity of reporting relationships. This type of structure may characterize part of the organization – for project team management for instance, where a project manager assumes authority over team members drawn from a number of departments – or it may extend to the entire organization. See Fig. 58.

There is no standard form of matrix. Managers may have equal formal authority over subordinates or alternatively one of these may have primary authority with the others, assuming authority on particular issues, as in the dotted-line relationship (see ORGANIZATION CHART). The benefits of matrix organization are said to be that it facilitates interdepartmental coordination during innovation, and, by weakening departmental boundaries, encourages greater flexibility and creativity. However, many organizations that have assumed this form have found that the absence of clarity in lines of authority and responsibility can lead to inertia and conflict. See FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE, PRODUCT-BASED STRUCTURE, CRITICAL FUNCTION STRUCTURE, CONCURRENT ENGINEERING.

References in periodicals archive ?
These studies will include an investigation of the long-term effects on the structure and function of cartilage associated with the tendency, (although small) of extracellular matrix deposition to increase in intensity and depth according to the duration of silver nitrate exposure.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of a great variety of molecules and includes collagen family, elastic fibers, glycosoaminoglycans and proteoglycans, and adhesive glycoproteins.
patent 8,637,311--The claims in this patent related to human embryonic stem cells that are cultured on extracellular matrix free of feeder cells and that are genetically modified.
5 million dollars over five years to support his novel approach to creating a synthetic network of proteins resembling the extracellular matrix of mammalian cells.
Since HA is a naturally occurring substance found in the extracellular matrix of human tissue, it is highly biocompatible.
She found blastemas, blobs of rapidly dividing immature cells, and evidence that a key protein layer, the extracellular matrix, breaks down, allowing tissues to regrow.
Endoform, a proprietary extracellular matrix biomaterial, provides a unique biologic template for tissue regeneration.
The fat cells are embedded in and secrete substances into an extracellular matrix, a type of connective tissue that provides support to fat tissue, like scaffolding.
This product is made from small intestinal submucosa (SIS), a naturally occurring extracellular matrix.
The scientists viewed this extracellular matrix as mere packing material, little more than the body's own Styrofoam peanuts.
Nasdaq:HALO), a biopharmaceutical company developing and commercializing products targeting the extracellular matrix, today announced the signing of an exclusive, worldwide, contract research collaboration agreement with BioAtla, LLC for the development of novel high throughput recombinant protein screening libraries directed against targets in oncology, aesthetic dermatology and inflammation.
In previous studies, the researchers discovered dial as tissue cells adhered to a soft natural extracellular matrix, they pulled and deformed the surface, actions that allowed the cells to use their sense of touch below the surface.

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