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The norms and shared attitudes that pervade an ORGANIZATION. It may be expressed in symbols, rituals and the language used by organization members. It thus constitutes the distinctive characteristics of an organization. In recent years managerial interest in organizational culture has grown enormously It is believed that the culture will influence how individuals behave at work and hence will affect both individual and organizational performances.

A number of types of culture have been identified in this respect:

  1. power culture, characterized by an emphasis on personal charisma, risk-taking and a low level of respect for procedures. This might be found in a small entrepreneurial organization, where power tends to be concentrated in the entrepreneur;
  2. rôle culture, characterized by well-defined procedures and job roles, and an emphasis on conformity. This might be found in an established BUREAUCRACY for example government administration;
  3. task culture, characterized by an emphasis on problem-solving by expert teams. Groups are formed to deal with particular problems. Once the task is completed the group may be disbanded. Here the culture is one which attaches importance to expertise, though in fact expertise may be less developed in organizations of this sort than in role culture organizations, where job roles are more specialized. Task culture places a much greater emphasis on flexibility and creativity than does role culture;
  4. person-oriented culture, characterized by an emphasis on meeting the needs of individuals in the organization. This is often found in small, ‘alternative’ organizations. It may also characterize small organizations composed mainly of PROFESSIONALS, such as small consultancy companies, where it is deemed important that individuals be given some freedom to shape their jobs so that they can pursue particular professional or other ‘acceptable’ outside interests (for example, being a local councillor).

A concern of many managers in recent years has been that the prevailing culture of their organization is inappropriate, or even obstructive, to a desired change in objectives. For instance, a role culture, where jobs are specialized and well-defined, could obstruct creativity and hence prevent an organization from becoming more entrepreneurial. As a result much attention recently has been devoted to changing cultures. It is doubtful, however, whether managers can actually achieve dramatic cultural change in the short term. Culture is influenced by a complex of factors, such as the character and background of the workforce, many of which are to some extent independent of managerial action. See MANAGEMENT STYLE. MECHANISTIC AND ORGANISMIC, EXCELLENCE CULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
These suggest that chondrocytes in the intact explant culture and in monolayer culture may exhibit some different response to this compound.
Primary explant cultures of gill and heart tissues from the abalone Haliotis asinina were undertaken using Leibovitz L15 medium supplemented with IGF-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor.
Tissues were rinsed in cold phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to remove excessive blood and processed for explant cultures within 2 hr.
In conclusion, findings of this study, showed that oral epithelial cells can be cultured in vitro by explant culture method similar to limbal epithelial cells.
In this regard, the highest concentration of fetal DNA was detected in STBM prepared by in vitro vinous explant cultures (Fig.
To quantify hemopoietic cell proliferation, tunicate tissue cultures were established by excising small portions (2 x 2 mm) of the pharynx for explant culture in tunicate tissue culture medium (T-RPMI; Raftos and Cooper, 1990).
However, P5 as starting point for explant culture is a necessary compromise between viability and maturity of the retinae in vitro (Caffe et al.