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the process of translating a product idea into a product which can be produced and marketed on a commercial basis. Though design is a creative process it has economic consequences insofar as a product's shape, configuration and performance affect its marketability and its cost of production. In order to achieve high product variety without involving an excessive variety of components, designers often use common, interchangeable parts and design products on a modular basis.

In order to remain competitive, firms need continuously to review the design of their products in the light of new developments in materials and processes. The technique of VALUE ANALYSIS is used to identify possible sources of cost savings without impairing a product's performance. See COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN, NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson
References in periodicals archive ?
The workshop on Experimental Design was organized by Dr Mark Prescott, Dr Nathalie Percie du Sert, and Dr Viki Hurst from the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), UK and included presentations, demonstrations, and interactive exercises.
Two measurements were performed: a baseline thermal nociception measurement (pre-MgS[O.sub.4] for groups A and C; pre-saline for groups B and D; pre-first swim for groups A, B, E and F), on day 1 of the experimental design; and a second measurement (post-MgS[O.sub.4] for groups E and G; post-saline for groups F and H; 24 hour post-last swim for groups A, B, E and F), on day 4 of the experimental design; no measurements were performed on days 2 or 3.
Seven studies suggested follow-up research using experimental design extend the duration of the treatment (Baker et al., 2014; Baker & Robinson, 2016; Bunch et al., 2014; Burris & Garton, 2007; Parr et al., 2006; Pennington et al., 2015; Rose et al., 2015).
In these studies, statistical methods are essential, and authors should strive to employ an appropriate experimental design and statistical analyses to provide the reader with scientifically relevant and valid knowledge.
Quasi-experimental designs include an intervention in the design; however, designs do not always include a control group, which is a cornerstone to an authentic experimental design. This type of design does not have randomization like the experimental design (Polit & Beck, 2012).
Based on the above experimental data, taking the yield of CDCA as an index, orthogonal experimental design of four factors' three levels was taken to optimize the extracting conditions of CDCA.
In this work, we investigate the efficiency of the recently proposed ED method called the Twilight Method Experimental Design (TMED) [15] for extracting rich data from a one-dimensional map.
Notwithstanding the use of experimental design to improve repeatability is reported in literature [47] for other applications, optimization in SPME is usually carried out to maximize signal intensity alone, that is, gas-chromatographic peak areas.
The Experimental Design Manager (EDM) interacts with the RM, via querying the database, to design an experiment utilizing a series of templates and CVs.
Experimental design in the behavioral and social sciences; 4v.
From our perspective, it seems clear that many authors are not sufficiently trained in experimental design or the importance of controlling for sources of bias in their studies.
Two models for acid activation of the bentonites were developed by using a full factorial experimental design and central composite design.

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