claim's expected value
with the presumption of validity will be
On the one hand, I recognize that a special rule may be necessary in cases where it is difficult to determine whether the expected value
of harm will exceed a minimal amount--that is, in cases not just where the probability of harm is low but where the magnitude of harm is large (even catastrophic) and where the harm is irreversible.
The expected value
of the lottery to entrant i is equal to the vertical segment (a, b), and expected consumer surplus is equal to the area of the triangle ([phi]bP(0), P*, c), where [phi] represents the probability of being drawn and c is one point on the entry function.
19) the average difference across the 200 data points between the utility of the expected value
and the expected value
of the utility is again statistically significantly different from zero with a t-statistic of 15.
While it is true that setting expected values
can never be perfect, the methods of deriving values can be improved through the application of technologies.
Following the ISO Guide, the result y and uncertainty u(y) determined from the systematic laboratory-effects model (3) are interpreted as the expected value
and standard deviation of a state-of-knowledge distribution for the values that could reasonably be attributed to Y based on the data [x.
Another alternative is to employ a mixed criterion, when something between expected value
and minimax loss is used to decide between human and automation.
The variance can be also obtained numerically as in the case of the expected value
Proposition 2: The expected values
of total and consumer's surplus produced by a MC firm will always be at least as high as those produced by a perfectly competitive firm and will usually be higher.
Now, take the expected value
of RIV: (5) [Mathematical Expression Omitted]
Then, it calculates the expected value
by first computing the probabilities of the alternative rate scenarios under differing levels of yield volatility.
Several assumptions are made to convert m, a, and b into estimates of the expected value
and variance of the elapsed time required by the activity.