deadweight loss

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Deadweight Loss

The loss of economic activity due to excessive taxation. For example, suppose a person on welfare is offered a job that pays more than he/she receives in welfare benefits. If taxes are too high, however, the person may find that his/her aftertax income is in fact lower than what he/she was receiving on welfare. The person might then rationally decide to stay on welfare. The deadweight loss is both the cost of keeping that person on welfare and the loss incurred from the economy at large from losing that person's production. It is also called the excess burden of taxation.
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Fig. 36 Deadweight loss .

deadweight loss

the reduction in CONSUMERS’ SURPLUS and PRODUCERS’ SURPLUS that results when the output of a product is restricted to less than the optimum efficient level that would prevail under PERFECT COMPETITION. Fig. 36 shows the demand and supply curves for a product, and their interaction establishes the equilibrium market price OP. At this price, consumers’ surplus is shown as the diagonally shaded area ABP and producers’ surplus as the vertically shaded area APO. If output is restricted from OQ to OQ1, then the price paid by consumers would rise to OP1 and consumers’ surplus would be reduced by the amount ACE, while the price received by producers would fall to OP2 and producers’ surplus would be reduced by the amount ADE.

Deadweight loss is particularly likely to occur in markets dominated by MONOPOLY suppliers who restrict output in order to keep prices high.

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
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References in periodicals archive ?
It is known that the excess burden of taxation shows efficiency cost associated with taxation.
Hines, Excess Burden of Taxation. Working Paper Series, University of Michigan and NBER, 2007, Product Number WP 2007-1.
The evasion of tax increases the administrative costs of taxation; as a result, it further totals the excess burden of taxation.
The two issues are the so-called 'marginal excess burden of taxation' (MEBT) and the 'value of a statistical life' (VSL).
Congress should mandate the Joint Committee on Taxation and Congressional Budget Office to incorporate the excess burden of taxation in their budget analyses, including cost estimates of legislation, baseline budget projections, and budget options, insists Conover.
"Complementarity and the Excess Burden of Taxation." Review of Economic Studies, 21(1), 1954, 21-30.
The additional distortions to labour supply and other markets from the environmental tax will be greater, the greater the initial degree of distortion in the economy; where an economy is initially highly distorted, the double-dividend argument will then be weaker than where the initial marginal excess burden of taxation was small.
Pearson and Smith (1991) observe that there is a close link between the impact of an environmental tax on the excess burden of taxation, and the distributional impact of the environmental tax.
Achieving reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions through the use of environmental taxes may confer future environmental benefits, but it is highly unlikely to confer fiscal gains in the sense of reducing the excess burden of taxation below current levels.
Turning to the excess burden of taxation, with both governments levying taxes, the combined excess burden is the area C + D + E, which is strictly larger than the original excess burden of area E.
Revenues and the Excess Burden of Taxation in a Federal System
An alternative way of stating this is that for any given excess burden of taxation, states can raise more revenue than the federal government.