In its final decision, TRA concludes that messaging termination services on individual Mobile Networks Operators (MNOs) should no longer be susceptible to ex-ante
regulation, while the wholesale market for call termination services still remains susceptible to ex-ante
regulation by TRA.
Ex-post regulations are those that deal with what happens after the fact, while ex-ante
aims to pre-empt or prevent negative actions from happening.
conditionalities (ExAC) are one of the key elements of the cohesion policy reform for the period between 2014 and 2020.
assessment; active policies; labor market; social impact; rural area
Although linear programming will still be adopted, he reiterated that "there will be a big change in the new MMS because we will already implement the five-minute dispatch interval...no more gate closure as to when offers shall be accommodated, and we will just also have one-settlement ...no more ex-ante
and ex-post settlements."
In the ex-ante
licensing policy, firms set their royalty rates competing for the adoption in the standard.
regulation refers to remedies and obligations which are imposed upon operators with dominant positions in the markets.
Thus far, there are no reported cases where a plaintiff brought suit for ex-post reasonable but ex-ante
unreasonable behavior or products.
The bill was expected to give the Public Procurement Agency wider-reaching powers to check tenders both before a contractor is selected (ex-ante
control) and after a contract is awarded (ex-post).
In the Property Right Theory of Grossman, Hart and Moore (Grossman and Hart, Journal of Political Economy, 1986, and Hart and Moore, Journal of Political Economy, 1990, hereafter GHM), ownership of an asset provides "residual rights of control." This can improve the ex-post bargaining power of the owner and, thus, creates ex-ante
incentives to invest.
They also demonstrate some general equilibrium implications of endogenous contracts; for example the ex-ante
value of human capital can be higher in an economy with moral hazard.