They essentially ask this question: Is it possible for the ex post return on one risky asset to exceed the ex post return on a different risky asset?
Although choosing a plan outside of one's state of residence foregoes any state tax advantage, it dominates a similar portfolio held outside the plan for any positive federal tax rate, so long as the nominal ex post return is positive.
where, t+1[RCY.sub.2] = ex post return from riding, t+1[P.sub.1] = price of the security when sold 'aged' as a 1-year maturity, c = periodic coupon, r = periodic reinvestment rate, and t[P.sup.2] = purchase price of the 2-year maturity.
where, t+1[RCY.sub.1] is the ex post return from holding full-term a 1-year loan.
But, under this explanation, our assumption that the ex post return
measures the true expectations up to a white noise error term is incorrect.
First, the ex ante return to starting college for male high school graduates is higher than the ex post return
to the first year of college because starting college provides the option to continue.
Real ex post returns
on external sovereign bonds averaged 7 percent annually across two centuries, including default episodes, major wars and global crises.
An efficient student lending scheme should yield the same ex ante expected return from all borrowers even if ex post returns
differ due to unpredictable labor market outcomes.
For parameterizations A and B, in which, respectively, there are no works with positive ex post investment returns and the works with positive ex post investment returns have low ex post returns
, finitely lived copyright protection is optimal.
By viewing analyst expectations as a proxy for market-wide expected returns, our results provide evidence that complements evidence acquired from large-sample empirical studies that use ex post returns
as a proxy for expectations.
The authors find that the combination of a staggered board and a poison pill nearly doubles the odds that a target firm will fend off a hostile bid, reducing target shareholders' ex post returns
by eight to ten percent in the nine months following the appearance of a hostile bidder.35 From this, the authors conclude that the staggered board/poison pill combination reduces shareholder wealth, and corporate law accordingly ought be modified to prevent its use.
Because the predicted returns on the stock market are subject to larger error when fewer years of ex post returns
on the stock market exist, a generalized least squares estimator is used that weights each observation by the number of years over which market returns are compounded [Johnston, 1984].