Estimating a broader measure of household income that adds employer-provided health insurance contributions and the ex ante value of government-provided health insurance (Medicaid and Medicare) to the traditional measure of household income (household size-adjusted, pre-tax, post-transfer, in-cash income of persons).
For their primary estimates the CBO uses the ex ante value of employer-provided health insurance, but unlike us they use the fungible insurance value of Medicare and Medicaid, which the Census Bureau has estimated and included in the public-use versions of the CPS since 1995 (U.
4) We assign this ex ante value to all those covered in a given year rather than, for instance, assigning a zero value to individuals who are covered by their employer- or government-provided health insurance but who ex post do not receive any health care in that year.
What counts as a fair price for access to a region's genetic resources should be judged by the expected ex ante value of the resources.
In particular, the value of the resources they deserve is likely to exceed the ex ante value of the land they occupy.
Another question is whether the benefits given to communities living in areas of biodiversity should be based on the resources' ex ante value or on their ex post value.
We list a number of empirical studies that proxy for ex ante value uncertainty, but we are aware of no studies that have yet proposed proxies for ex post value uncertainty.
While numerous previous studies consider and proxy for ex ante value uncertainty, only recently have theoretical papers considered that value uncertainty may continue to be resolved after the start of trading (ex post).
In theory, one might be able to measure the ex ante value
of ATDs by creating a sample of firms about to go public that already have elected to put ATDs in their charters.
A rational caregiver's ex ante value to reduce risk of death or illness would include the full value of this change, including the values attaching to his or her children.
Valuation Link Like adult health, the indirect effects on children are in theory already embedded in the standard ex ante value of a rational caregiver who considers the full value to himself or herself of protecting the environment.
Address how the link between social policy and caregiver choice affects the ex ante value to maintain a child's life chances.