Johann Frick has developed such an account: ex ante
In some cases, the ex ante
contracting goes further to address
Our approach differs from previous research both by distinguishing between the often-confounded effects of adverse selection and ex ante
moral hazard on the probability of a claim, and by testing for the separate presence of ex post moral hazard.
First, they find a significant residual gender gap with ex ante
but not ex post choices and interpret this as suggesting that the residual gender gaps are different.
One is that net neutrality policy has lost its focus and is now a growing miscellany of ex ante
regulations that frequently work against the entrepreneurs and consumers the rules are intended to help.
This comparison further bolsters our proposal in favour of a division between ex ante
and ex post versions of the rule.
Nevertheless, the Discussion Draft essentially condones the use of hindsight by allowing tax authorities to use ex post evidence and presume that an intangible is mispriced if there is a significant difference between the ex post "correct" price (the "actual financial outcomes" in the Drafts phrasing) (3) and the ex ante
price unless the taxpayer meets the criteria listed in paragraph 14.
BUDGETARY 29 2.545 0.000 0.869 INFORMATION (A) (1+2+3) EX POST BUDGETARY 46 2.712 0.000 0.962 INFORMATION (P) (4+5+6+8) KEY BUDGETARY 41 1.894 0.000 0.920 INFORMATION (K) (1+7) ADDITIONAL BUDGETARY 34 2.923 0.000 0.911 INFORMATION (AD) (2+3+4+5+6) TOTAL (1+2+3+4+5+6+7) 75 4.500 0.000 1.865 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS St.
Leading academic commentary explicitly assumes that contractual responsibilities are determined in the following way: parties determine many of their duties ex ante
, by specifying terms at the time of contract formation, and leave the rest of the terms vague, for a court to specify ex post if any should prove important.
It will then explore some of the problems with this current regime before proposing a new regime of ex ante
review and detailing its implementation and procedure.
The main changes concern pay-out arrangements (time limit of 20 working days at present reduced to seven working days by 2024) and the introduction of ex ante
financing arrangements with a minimum target level for ex ante
funds of 0.8% of covered deposits to be reached within a ten-year period, collected from banks' contributions.