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In the context of hedge funds, a style of management that combines many different types of hedge fund investing such as merger arbitrage, distressed securities and high yield investing, in conjunction with an important "event" that is supposed to unlock firm value (like a merger announcement, earnings announcement, or a regulator decision).
In hedge funds, an investment strategy of using many different investment strategies in reaction to various events. For example, if a merger is announced, a hedge fund may conduct transactions according to one strategy and, if the merger falls through, the fund may make transactions using a completely different strategy. The idea behind an event driven strategy is to use the best investment strategy befitting a particular moment in time.