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the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and knowledge of people so as to improve JOB performance. A distinction can be made between vocational training, i.e. the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and pre-vocational training, i.e. the development of awareness of the world of work and employment. Education develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy which form the bedrock for more specialized occupational skills.

To determine what training is required in an organization or economy, it is beneficial to undertake a training needs analysis. As a first step the main goals or priorities have to be established; then it is necessary to consider what skills are necessary to achieve these objectives. These are compared with the existing stock of skills amongst workers. Any deficiency is referred to as a skills gap and represents the skills that should be provided by training. A comprehensive approach to training will involve a needs analysis, a programme to close this gap and a monitoring and evaluation process to determine whether it has been successful.

Although it is generally accepted that training improves job performance, UK employers are often reluctant to provide training. The UK in fact has a poor record compared with its main competitors such as Germany. Training in the UK is widely viewed as a cost rather than an investment, and one whose potential benefits are difficult to quantify on the balance sheet. Employers fear that employees, once trained, will leave or be poached for higher paid employment.

Traditionally, the training system in the UK was voluntarist (see VOLUNTARISM) in that the state had little role in directing the structures and content of training programmes and institutions. However, state intervention has grown in recent years. Currently, the system of vocational training is overseen by the recently-created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (see NATIONAL VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATION). There is also an emphasis on skill development and training amongst the unemployed in the Welfare-to-Work programme. Participants in this programme receive training as part of work placements. See MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT, ACCREDITATION OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING, ACCREDITATION OF PRIOR LEARNING, APPRENTICESHIP, NEW DEAL.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson


the process of extending and improving the SKILLS and KNOW-HOW of people so as to improve the performance of the LABOUR FORCE and thus enhance PRODUCTIVITY. A broad distinction can be made between ‘vocational training’, that is, training concerned with the acquisition of specific occupational skills, and ‘general education’, which develops those basic skills such as writing and numeracy that form the basis for the development of more specialized occupational skills.

Vocational training is provided by firms through apprenticeships (‘on-the-job’ training), in-company short courses, management development programmes, etc. Governments also sponsor and finance vocational training initiatives as well as undertaking responsibilities for the provision of general education. Currently the system of government vocational training is overseen by the recently created national and local LEARNING AND SKILLS COUNCILS, and the government has established a framework of vocational qualifications (National Vocational Qualifications - NVQs) to encourage training in transferable skills.

Under the NEW DEAL (1998), unemployed youths (in the age group 18–24) and the older long-term unemployed (aged 25 or over), receiving the JOBSEEKERS ALLOWANCE, can be placed on a one-year full-time training course. See INVESTORS IN PEOPLE, DEPARTMENT FOR EDUCATION AND SKILLS.

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Endurance training enhances skeletal muscle interleukin-15 in human male subjects.
In recent years, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has become a very popular form of endurance training among both athletes and recreationally-active individuals.
Effects of endurance training on plasma glucose during constant and incremental speed tests
Regular endurance training is very beneficial to health and wellbeing, and can be used to prevent cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and other such conditions.
The authors cover the physical demands of tennis, the use of muscles in various tennis strokes, high-performance fitness testing, strength training, power training, tennis endurance training, program design and periodization, solid should stability, and a great many other related subjects over the course of the bookAEs sixteen chapters.
A new study suggests just 1 minute of vigorous exercise three times weekly can benefit health just as much as longer, conventional endurance training.
Endurance training helps an individual work for a longer period of time without undergoing fatigue but with less intensity; whereas, a person undergoing speed or strength training helps him work with more intensity but for a short period of time.
Though most body builders avoid endurance training and sports, stating that it often compromises the gains in muscle mass that they are trying to achieve, Lawrence has found an intense combination of exercise routines, with an emphasis on rest and proper nutrition, that allow him to achieve high levels of endurance for marathon participation, as well as the significant gains in muscle mass that he seeks.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of two different sinusoidal loading models of endurance training (daily sinusoidal loading pattern (DSL), weekly sinusoidal loading pattern (WSL) on left ventricular concentrations of A and NA after a bout of the lactate threshold test (LAT) in male wistar rats.
Endurance training, also called cardiovascular exercise, refers to using several groups of muscles to increase the heart rate for a prolonged period of time.
In Feb this year there was article in the UK stating that raining hard was as bad as not training at all especially if it is directed toward endurance training. If you are doing more than 150 minutes a week of organized training you could be putting yourself at risk.
The routine changes every time and we do a mix of running, interval & speed training, strengthening, core workouts, resistance & endurance training. The remaining days I go to the gym for cross-training, cycling, weight training, yoga & pranayama.