Nancy Kubasek, a professor of legal studies at Bowling Green State University, and two colleagues, writing in an 820-page issue of Environmental Law (April 1994) devoted to the subject, assert that the $30-40 million that Congress annually allotted to administer the endangered species program
during the Bush years "clearly" was not enough.
The third basic component of the endangered species program
is the recovery planning process contained in section 4 of the ESA.(13) Section 4 directs FVS and NMFS to develop recovery plans for any listed species unless the agency "finds that such a plan will not promote the conservation of the species."(14) The recovery plans have as their objective the 'conservation and survival" of listed species.(15) This conservation objective is separate and distinct from the no jeopardy/no adverse modification of habitat requirements of section 7.(16) "Conservation" is one of the more important terms in the ESA, and it generally is defined to mean those "methods and procedures" necessary to enable the listing agency to delist the species.(17)
If these issues can be established as the primary points of debate, this reauthorization may finally begin the march toward an effective and reasonable endangered species program
that all Americans can be proud of.
"We have a couple of snails that people are less enthusiastic about," said William Radtkey, endangered species program
manager for the Bureau of Land Management.
Tom French, director of the state's Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program
, at a recent talk at Quabbin on the return of ravens to Massachusetts, noted that fishers were among species that have repopulated here without any help from wildlife biologists.
We are constantly seeking ways to improve coordination throughout the Endangered Species Program
to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of species recovery.
Fish and Wildlife Service recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Coevolution Institute, giving the Endangered Species Program
access to NAPPC's tri-national network of experts in pollination biology.
And a December analysis of FWS programs by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation--an independent organization set up by Congress in 1984 -- agrees that "the endangered species program
is seriously underfunded and understaffed given the scope of its legally mandated duties." But one major reason for that, the foundation charges, is FWS' failure to let Congress -- which sets its budget -- know exaclty how many species need "emergency" help.
Tom French, the assistant director of our state's Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program
Fish and Wildlife Service in the Endangered Species Program
in 1981, and I've stayed with the program ever since.
In the past, the national parks have not had an organized endangered species program
except in isolated cases, and there is limited integration of research within a park or refuge, let alone among management units.