Finally, when dysfunctional mitochondria are not producing optimum energy they go into low energy state called 'hibernation' or 'cell danger response mode' wherein ATPs are not formed through the normal process of electron transport chain
. Instead, 2 ADPs combine and make one ATP.
Table 1 shows a summary of some of those shrimp proteins that may play central roles within the mitochondria, including those from metabolic pathways such as the Krebs cycle, the electron transport chain
, and ATP synthesis.
Photosynthetic responses genotypes to flooding were detected through changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, suggesting that flooding caused changes in absorption and in the utilization of light energy by the electron transport chain
The dysfunctional electron transport chain
in mitochondria is one of the major sources of ROS .
Genes in module up-2 (ATP5D, UQCRC2, NDUFS7, NDUFA2, UQCR11, NDUFB8, NDUFV1, NDUFV2, NDUFA7, NDUFS3, NDUFA1, and NDUFB1) were mainly related to mitochondrial ATP synthesis coupled electron transport (P=1.12E-14), the electron transport chain
(P=7.35E-14), and mitochondrial electron transport (P=9.94E-14; Table 2).
* Mitochondrial aging can be slowed, and their energy production restored, by administration of nutrients that smooth the flow of energy down the mitochondrial electron transport chain
Malate is the key intermediate product of the C4 pathway; it not only carries CO2 from MC to BSC, but also transfers NADPH generated in MC chloroplasts by the electron transport chain
Raxone (idebenone), a synthetic short-chain benzoquinone and a cofactor for the enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), is capable of transferring electrons directly onto complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain
, thereby circumventing the complex I defect, reducing and scavenging ROS and restoring cellular energy levels in retinal ganglion cells and promoting recovery of visual acuity.
Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is found in many types of organisms and is confirmed to be an essential component of the electron transport chain
for aerobic respiration (Lenaz et al., 2007).
There are five complexes in the electron transport chain
This regulation of photosynthetic electron transport depends on the components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain
between PSII and PSI.
They identified three genetic pathways that appear to be involved: the TCP-1 ring complex chaperonin, which helps proteins fold; mitochondrial electron transport chain
complexes (mETC); and a suite of genes responsible for the body's circadian rhythm.