Gradient

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Gradient

The slope,or change in elevation,of land or improvements such as a pipe or a road.It is expressed as the ratio of inches (or feet) of rise or fall over a specified distance. It is similar to the concept of pitch in roofing.Figure A (above) has a gradient of 1:12 because the grade increases by 1 foot over a distance of 12 feet. Figure B has a gradient of 1:6.

The Complete Real Estate Encyclopedia by Denise L. Evans, JD & O. William Evans, JD. Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Although the orientation of the electrochemical gradient along most of the proximal tubule favors diffusion of magnesium from the lumen to blood through the paracellular pathway, this has not been demonstrated.
"An alteration in [Na.sup.+.,K.sup.+-ATPase ion transport would affect the [sodium-potassium] electrochemical gradient and conceivably contribute to changes in renal function, vessel wall resistance, or cardiac rhythmogenicity and contractility," the researchers say.
This route requires transport proteins capable of moving calcium from the tubular cells across the basolateral membrane against its electrochemical gradient. Two such transporters are the plasma membrane [Ca.sup.++]-ATPase, which is an ATP-dependent pump, and the [Na.sup.+]-[Ca.sup.++]-exchanger, a carrier protein that derives its energy from the inwardly directed [Na.sup.+] gradient that is generated by the continuous activity of the [Na.sup.+]-[K.sup.+]-ATPase.
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