Cycle

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Cycle

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Task loop can be divided into 10 micro-duties with 10% duty cycle. The initial energy of the node is [E.sub.init] and after a period of operation, the residual energy is [E.sub.residual].
Improvement on this parameter is based on effective utilization of Optimized Sleep scheduling algorithm with dynamic Low duty cycle. It is shown in figure 4 with 10% improvement.
Because the dither amplitude depends on the duty cycle, it is maximized at a 50% duty cycle and decreases to zero at 0% and 100% duty cycles.
Similarly, "DC" and "SF" represent duty cycle of jamming signal and spreading factor, receptively.
The internal capacitance of the LED array will act as a smoothing capacitor if a proper switching frequency and duty cycle are chosen, and hence no external smoothing capacitor is needed.
In Section 2, we describe the full mathematical model of energy-efficient duty cycle design.
time for the 5.0A DC current (black line) and for 3.536A DC (dotted red line), which is the RMS-equivalent current for the 5.0A current at a 50% duty cycle. These curves rise asymptotically to the values of 65.7[degrees]C and 45.4[degrees]C, respectively, as expected.
The output of the SEPIC is controlled by the duty cycle of the control transistor.