Whilst it is important to note that unifi- cation of Iran's dual exchange rates
would pose a risk to Arak's earnings in the near-term, we do not envisage this happening in 2017.
The latter change creates excess demand for foreign bonds which, because of the presence of dual exchange rates, depreciates the financial exchange rate and reduces the current domestic real interest rate.
This occurs because dual exchange rates enable free-spending politicians to enjoy the same temporarily low inflation as fixed regimes, as well as a temporary consumption boom which is regarded as desirable by impatient politicians.
Myanmar is one of only 17 countries that still have dual exchange rates and even the IMF has only three experts on how to unify them.
The plan for Myanmar's boldest economic reform yet was laid out by central bank deputy governor Maung Maung Win in documents seen by Reuters on Tuesday that said preparations to unify the dual exchange rate should be made by the end of this month.
1987): "Dynamics stability under a dual exchange rates regime with neutral intervention operations", Economics Letters North-Holland (25): 67 -70.
1984): Capital controls, the dual exchange rate, and devaluation, NBER Working Paper # 1324.
It is difficult to see how Europe might adopt dual exchange rates
, one for trade and another for capital movements, in a way that would not provide opportunities for financial arbitrage.
After unifying the dual exchange rates of the Chinese currency renminbi (RMB) and implementing a managed-float system on January 1, 1994, China formally committed itself to partial currency convertibility, that is, currency convertibility under the current account, in December 1996.
Although China has claimed unification of the RMB dual exchange rates and partial currency convertibility in recent years, the effects of these liberalization policies could be jeopardized by the continuation of heavily rooted broad administrative intervention and discretion under the managed-float system.
The new package of economic measures announced by the government recently to conserve the dwindling foreign exchange reserves, curb flight of capital, restore the credibility of economic management and addressing the effects of international economic sanctions imposed on Pakistan in the wake of the nuclear tests, ushers in dual exchange rates
, is a virtual devaluation and an attempt to compress imports by making them costlier.
New concerns about the durability of the Smithsonian Agreement surfaced in early 1973, after the Swiss authorities permitted their currencies to float and Italian authorities adopted dual exchange rates