A Heuristic Particle Swarm Optimization Method for Truss Structures with Discrete Variables
, Computers & Structures, 87(7--8), 2009, pp.
For discrete variables
that use the real code strategy, new chromosomes are formulated as follows:
for substance use include cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, and marijuana use.
The survey indicates that sellers earn a lower percentage (42%) of their income from the farm than non-sellers (52%), and are more likely to have off-farm employment (measured as a discrete variable
equal to 1 if their principal occupation is off-farm and 0 otherwise).
A discrete variable
model does facilitate numeric solutions that, by means of a direct approximation of a stochastic process, enable the analysis of interactively specific situations by virtue of a Monte Carlo simulation.
In this case, the frequency depends on a continuous variable and two discrete variables
Cheese brand is a discrete variable
, a variable that comes in different kinds with no "values" in between kinds.
We cast this problem as the joint optimization of discrete variables
indicating which constraints apply, and continuous variables representing the 3D model that best satisfies these constraints.
The efficiency of the proposed optimizer was tested via the optimization of several truss structures with discrete variables
(Ali et al, 2012).
In response, we have experimented with measuring discrete variables
of behavior, developing distance learning programs, evaluating employee morale, reengineering processes, moving training to be just-in-time, and a barrage of other well-meaning efforts; always remaining focused on improving how we perform, while rarely defining and measuring the required performance.
Therefore we recommend use of discrete variables
in resource constrained settings, in spite of their statistical limitations.
DataMontage enhances data review, decision support, and real-time monitoring systems for diverse applications in which researchers, engineers, planners, and analysts must rapidly detect temporal patterns spanning many continuous and discrete variables
and events in order to interpret complex data and reach time-critical decisions.