net present value

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Net present value (NPV)

The present value of the expected future cash flows minus the cost.
Copyright © 2012, Campbell R. Harvey. All Rights Reserved.

Net Present Value

A measure of discounted cash inflow to present cash outflow to determine whether a prospective investment will be profitable. For example, if a dentist wishes to purchase a new dental practice, he may calculate the net present value over a number of years to see if he will recover his investment in a reasonable period of time. If the ask price for the dental practice is $500,000, this is the present cash outflow used in the calculation. If the discounted cash inflow over, say, two years, is greater than or equal to $500,000, then the investment will likely be profitable. See also: Present value.
Farlex Financial Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All Rights Reserved

net present value

The discounted value of an investment's cash inflows minus the discounted value of its cash outflows. To be adequately profitable, an investment should have a net present value greater than zero. For investment in securities, the initial cost is usually the only outflow.
Wall Street Words: An A to Z Guide to Investment Terms for Today's Investor by David L. Scott. Copyright © 2003 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

net present value

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson

net present value

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005

net present value

An analytical tool for evaluating whether or not to purchase an investment. The tool does not tell you if an investment is good or bad;it tells you if the investment will meet your predetermined objectives or not.

• Critical to defining your objectives is setting the equivalent of an interest rate you would like to earn on your initial cash investment. This is called the discount rate. The discount rate may change from investment to investment, depending on your assessment of the risk. The safest investment is an FDIC-insured savings account, but it returns the lowest interest rate. You, the investor, decide what rate you would like to earn. You use the net-present-value tool to calculate whether a particular investment will earn the rate you want.

• Having said all that, the official definition of net present value is as follows: using a preselected discount rate, net present value is the present value of all cash incomes, less the present value of all cash outflows (including initial investment). If this is not clear, it will become so with the example below.

• If the net present value is 0 or a positive number, the investor should go forward. If the answer is negative for the discount rate selected, then the investment should not be made because it will not meet the investor's objectives, not because it is a “bad investment” in the ordinary sense of that phrase.

• The Excel formula for present value is pv (rate, cashflow, cashflow, cashflow)
‘'Rate” is the cell with the interest rate the investor would like to earn. Each of the “cashflow” entries is a cell address for cash flows by the end of each year, such as year 1, year 2, year 3, and so on. If an asset is sold in a particular year, the net sales price (after expenses of the sale) is entered as part of the cash flow for that year. One flaw of the system is that it assumes all cash flows are received at year-end, when they are really received over time, but that is usually a relatively minor problem.

The Complete Real Estate Encyclopedia by Denise L. Evans, JD & O. William Evans, JD. Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
An employer should measure the cost of healthcare-related termination benefits, including healthcare continuation under COBRA, by calculating the discounted present value of expected future benefit payments, in accordance with the following requirements, as applicable:
As suggested by the models in Riew [1973] and Cebula [1979], the net discounted present value of migration from area i to area j, DPVij, consists of three major component parts:
Since the home price is equal to the discounted present value of the future rental equivalent, future declines in rents from their short-run peak will cause the discounted present value to decline from its initial increase given by equation (3).
Grantor Retained Annuity Trusts (GRATs), for example, allow current gifts of a future interest at a discounted present value. The value of a gift made through a GRAT is the value of the property transferred to the GRAT, less the retained annuity interest.
Investors purchase stocks because they expect to receive some future income stream - either in the form of dividends and/or the proceeds from the eventual sale of the shares of stock.(2) The standard model of stock valuation posits that a stock's price equals the discounted present value of this income stream.(3) Because the amount of income ultimately depends on the firm's potential to generate earnings, a key fundamental determinant of the stock's value will be expected earnings growth.(4) The more a firm is expected to earn, the more investors will pay for its stock.
This discussion may suggest the basis for my disagreement with the view that future benefits--and especially future lives--are without moral or ethical value simply because their discounted present value approaches zero.
Clean water benefits include present use value, present existence value, and the discounted present value of generation 2's existence values.
Deferred spending cuts have less of a psychological effect on the economy than imminent cuts (even accounting for these cuts' discounted present value).
The Board's staff estimates that the gain would be about $2.28 billion, in nominal terms, during the first five years after introduction of the new coin and would average about $456 million per year, in real discounted present value terms, over the assumed thirty-year life of the $1 coin.
But we aren't finished yet, because if the higher profit leads to a higher stock price, we tax that profit again when the stockholder sells his shares, even though the stock price merely reflects the discounted present value of the future profits that are already going to be taxed twice.
The carrying of a loan at a discounted present value when it is probable that the creditor will be unable to collect all amounts due under the terms of the loan is widely supported.