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Fig. 23 Computer. The main items of hardware.


an electronic/electromechanical device which accepts alphabetical and numerical data in a predefined form, stores and processes this data according to the instructions contained in a COMPUTER PROGRAM, and presents the analysed data in an organized form. Fig. 23 shows the main items of computer HARDWARE, with input devices like KEYBOARDS, and magnetic tape readers; the CPU (central processing unit) which manipulates data; DISK DRIVES which provide additional data storage capacity; and output devices like PRINTERS and VISUAL DISPLAY UNITS. The figure shows how a number of computers may be linked in a LOCAL AREA NETWORK, in this case to process customer orders, maintain the sales LEDGER and issue INVOICES.

Big ‘mainframe’ computers are used to handle large databases. For example, the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency in Swansea holds over 60 million records on its mainframe computer. Increasingly, however, with the development of faster, more powerful and more cost-effective microprocessors the mainframe computer has been replaced by the desktop ‘personal computer’ (PC) in routine office data-processing operations (DOWNSIZING), with PCs being linked together in LOCAL AREA NETWORKS, enabling them to share data. A further development has been the introduction of small portable computers typified by the ‘notebook’ personal computer which can be carried in a briefcase.

Computers have dramatically improved the productivity of DATA PROCESSING in business, facilitating the keeping of ACCOUNTING ledger records like sales ledger, purchases ledger and payroll and personal records by small numbers of clerical staff. In addition, software packages like SPREADSHEETS and WORD PROCESSORS have improved the presentation and analysis of management information, helping to improve decision-making. See FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM, PRODUCTION LINE, ELECTRONIC MAIL SYSTEM, COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN, COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING, INFORMATION MANAGEMENT, BULLETIN BOARD, MODEM, INTERNET.

Collins Dictionary of Business, 3rd ed. © 2002, 2005 C Pass, B Lowes, A Pendleton, L Chadwick, D O’Reilly and M Afferson


an electronic/electromechanical device that accepts alphabetical and numerical data in a predetermined form, stores and processes this data according to instructions contained in a computer program, and presents the analysed data. Computers have dramatically improved the productivity of data processing in commerce and business; for example, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing systems have improved the speed and cost with which new components or products can be assigned and subsequently scheduled for production;

computer-aided distribution and stock control systems such as ELECTRONIC POINT OF SALE (EPOS) have helped to minimize stockholdings and have improved customer services; computers have rapidly taken over the manual tasks of keeping accounting records such as company sales and payroll. Computers have also played a prominent role in speeding up the response of commodity and financial markets to changing demand and supply conditions by processing and reporting transactions quickly.

In recent years computers have underpinned the rapid expansion of E-COMMERCE using the INTERNET. See STOCK EXCHANGE, AUTOMATION, MASS PRODUCTION.

Collins Dictionary of Economics, 4th ed. © C. Pass, B. Lowes, L. Davies 2005
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Students were asked how often they used a digital device during classes for non-classroom related activities on a typical college day.
Parents More Positive Than Teachers on Digital Devices
Without any evidence that he was the terrorist, Al-Harbi, the businessman, was taken into custody and all his belongings, including his digital devices were confiscated.
If you have recorded your material to a digital device (such as MiniDisc or DAT) that has a digital output, the digital connectors will give you an uncorrupted transfer of your recording to the computer.
With communications software, any digital device will be able to access the Internet without a phone, the officials said.
Within a few years, approximately 80 percent of all mobile phones are expected to carry a Bluetooth chip that will provide a wireless connection to similarly equipped notebook computers, printers and, potentially, any other digital device. Over 1800 companies worldwide have signed on as members of the Bluetooth Special Interest Group.
The survey also found that consumers own more stand-alone cassette-based telephone answering machines than own digital systems-45 percent have a cassette unit; 5 percent own a digital device.
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Lens expert at Hoya, Maarten Brouwer, said: "These provide accommodative support tailored to the patient's age, digital device use and severity of digital eye strain symptoms."
Citizens can get metro bus card over payment of Rs 130 refundable payment while they can recharge the card through ticket vending machine or portable digital device.
With the majority of the public now owning cell phones, computers, personal digital assistants, or other such technology, it is more important than ever for law enforcement especially crime scene investigators--to learn how to extract evidence from these devices, maintains Rick Mislan, an assistant professor in the Department of Computer and Information Technology at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., who specializes in small-scale digital device forensics.
It's a fully-featured digital device with a convenient fingertip pulse sensor and the calories you are burning can be read based on the information you input ( gender, weight, pulse rate, exercise time and level of intensity.

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