In this study they use firm age as an independent variable and debt as a dependent variable
. They check the direct effect of firm age and use of debt.
All analyses were made using the SPSS 16 Statistical Package for correlations and regression analysis for calculating regression coefficients, including regression constants and slopes for dependent variables
against the predictor (independent variables).
For the fiscal years 2001 to 2015, we can measure the strength of each of our independent variables to our dependent variable
where [y.sub.jit] is the dependent variable
, either employment or payroll for a specific NAICS code, i indexes counties, t indexes time, in years, and j indexes either employment or payroll in a particular industry.
Logistic regression is a special case of regression modeling when our dependent variable
is binary or dichotomous.
In this analysis, we must identify those variables that are strongly correlated with the dependent variable
, but superficially correlated among themselves.
Single-subject research studies are classified as having positive, neutral or mixed, or negative effects on the basis of (a) the number and proportion of participants in a study for whom a functional relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable
was established and (b) the direction of the functional relationships.
For the same reason, we will keep the dependent variables
in their original units, rather than using log transformations.
The R-Value of the model showed a value of .76 showing that independent variables (internal, external and environmental factors) have a 76% effect on the dependent variable
(selection of) which shows that up to 76% of the dependent variable
is caused by the independent variables.
Unfortunately, Campbell rejects all means of controlling for those ups and downs that do not involve the use of a dependent variable
lagged one or two quarters--a flawed practice for two reasons.
A model with a large regression sum of squares in comparison to the residual sum of squares indicates that the model accounts for most of variation in the dependent variable
. Very high residual sum of squares indicate that the model fails to explain a lot of the variation in the dependent variable
, and one may want to look for additional factors that help account for a higher proportion of the variation in the dependent variable
Several dependent variables
were explored prior to treatment and following the treatment.