demographic transition

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Fig. 42 Demographic transition. The levelling-off of the rate of population growth during a country's economic development.

demographic transition

a POPULATION cycle that is associated with the ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT of a country. In underdeveloped countries (i.e. subsistence agrarian economies), BIRTH RATES and DEATH RATES are both high, so there is very little change in the overall size of the population. With economic development (i.e. INDUSTRIALIZATION), INCOME PER HEAD begins to rise and there is a fall in the DEATH RATE (through better nutrition, sanitation, medical care, etc.), which brings about a period of rapid population growth. Provided ECONOMIC GROWTH is consistently greater than the increase in population, income per head continues to expand and eventually serves to reduce the BIRTH RATE (small families become the ‘norm’ in society as people seek to preserve their growing affluence). At this point, population growth slows down and may eventually level off.

Most advanced industrial countries have gone through a demographic transition of the kind described above and are today characterized by both low birth and death rates and slow-growing populations. See POPULATION TRAP, DEVELOPING COUNTRY.

References in periodicals archive ?
267- 306), on the line of the second demographic transition theory.
Crisis situation involves failure of advanced demographic transition theory assumptions, especially about the relationship between demographic phenomena and social and economic development, and the term 'anomie' implies a deinstitutionalization of standards and values, thus implying the idea 'without rules' by which 'cultural interpretive models lose their function' (Atteslander, 2007, pp.
Empirically, complications are too prevalent to view demographic transition theory as a general law, but it remains useful to frame discussion of common patterns and unusual features in case studies.
That is, the makers of demographic transition theory were mostly men, and the subject of the theory, the figure that inaugurates the demographic transition is "Man.
In conclusion, it is tempting to draw parallels to classic demographic transition theory to explain men's attitudes toward fertility, pregnancy, childbirth, and fathering.
With the loss of confidence in the demographic transition theory, alternative explanations such as those linked to diffusionism and "ideational change" and the New Household Economics arguments linking demand for children to "costs" and "prices" grew in popularity (Cleland and Wilson 1987; Bekker 1960).
On the other hand, the classical demographic transition theory has been challenged with regard to its ability to explain demographic trends of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in Europe.
The introductory essay links the book to the current state of the field as George Alter outlines the principal recent theoretical and empirical approaches to fertility decline: demographic transition theory, the Princeton Fertility Project, and wealth-flows theory.
According to the demographic transition theory, as living standards rise and health conditions improve, mortality rates should decline, followed by a decline in fertility rates sometime later.

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