The note said that diversification would be needed to "mitigate the risk of instability in energy availability and pricing." This would be especially pertinent in times of supply or demand shocks
in the oil and gas markets, it added.
However, anticipation of robust growth has driven strong debt-funded capex, which could increase the vulnerability of some issuers to potential demand shocks
or tighter refinancing conditions, says Fitch Ratings.
Summary: Chandigarh (Punjab), [India], Dec 1 (ANI): President Ram Nath Kovind on Saturday said that Indian "agriculture needs a renewal with contemporary technology, protection against climate change, price fluctuations and demand shocks
, and sustained investment by and partnership with business" for enhanced agricultural value and competitiveness, and better incomes.
They do this by taking advantage of the interaction between labor demand shocks
that generate changes in demand for college and geographic variation in the latent supply of for-profit colleges.
After controlling for the source of the changes in oil prices, I investigate the effect of oil supply, oil-specific (shocks that only affect the oil market), and aggregate demand shocks
on oil and non-oil components of U.S.
The structural parameters of the model are also estimated and are identified using a novel strategy that interacts tract-specific labor demand shocks
with the spatial configuration of the city.
Second, upon entry the firm draws its initial productivity, [phi] [member of] [[[phi].sub.L], [[phi].sub.H]] [subset or equal to] [R.sup.+] and vector of demand shocks
, [DELTA] [equivalent to] [[[[lambda].sub.i]].sub.N X 1], with [[lambda].sub.i]] [member of] [[lambda].sub.L]] [[lambda].sub.H]]] [subset or equal to] [R.sup.+] from continuous distribution functions with cumulative distribution GE([phi]) and [H.sub.E]([DELTA]), respectively.
Using an Assignment Model to Forecast the Geographic Incidence of Local Labor Demand Shocks
In particular, the evidence according to which participation in the EMU implies a higher inflation aversion, seems to suggest a stronger resilience with respect to exogenous demand shocks
To better understand export diversification in Lebanon, while taking into account highly sophisticated domains of production and an absence of a policy-driven structural change, the literature has attributed changes in sophistication levels in different countries to two key causes: A productivity shock or a demand shock
. As Lebanese firms continue to suffer burdensome costs of production and a lack of adequate skills, the increase in Lebanese export sophistication has been largely driven by demand shocks
Estimates of employment response to labor demand shocks
for real estate agents, architects and construction workers were 0.39, 0.29, and 0.50 respectively.
Downside Growth Risks From Europe: A relapse in the European economic recovery would leave Sweden's open economy vulnerable to external demand shocks
. A UK vote to leave the EU in June, while not our base-case scenario, poses an additional risk.